We present two new hybrid meta exchangecorrelation functionals, called M06 and M06-2X. The M06 functional is parametrized including both transition metals and nonmetals, whereas the M06-2X functional is a highnonlocality functional with double the amount of nonlocal exchange (2X), and it is parametrized only for nonmetals.The functionals, along with the previously published M06-L local functional and the M06-HF full-Hartree-Fock functionals, constitute the M06 suite of complementary functionals. We assess these four functionals by comparing their performance to that of 12 other functionals and Hartree-Fock theory for 403 energetic data in 29 diverse databases, including ten databases for thermochemistry, four databases for kinetics, eight databases for noncovalent interactions, three databases for transition metal bonding, one database for metal atom excitation energies, and three databases for molecular excitation energies. We also illustrate the performance of these 17 methods for three databases containing 40 bond lengths and for databases containing 38 vibrational frequencies and 15 vibrational zero point energies. We recommend the M06-2X functional for applications involving main-group thermochemistry, kinetics, noncovalent interactions, and electronic excitation energies to valence and Rydberg states. We recommend the M06 functional for application in organometallic Contribution to the Mark S. Gordon 65th Birthday Festschrift Issue.
We present a new continuum solvation model based on the quantum mechanical charge density of a solute molecule interacting with a continuum description of the solvent. The model is called SMD, where the "D" stands for "density" to denote that the full solute electron density is used without defining partial atomic charges. "Continuum" denotes that the solvent is not represented explicitly but rather as a dielectric medium with surface tension at the solute-solvent boundary. SMD is a universal solvation model, where "universal" denotes its applicability to any charged or uncharged solute in any solvent or liquid medium for which a few key descriptors are known (in particular, dielectric constant, refractive index, bulk surface tension, and acidity and basicity parameters). The model separates the observable solvation free energy into two main components. The first component is the bulk electrostatic contribution arising from a self-consistent reaction field treatment that involves the solution of the nonhomogeneous Poisson equation for electrostatics in terms of the integral-equation-formalism polarizable continuum model (IEF-PCM). The cavities for the bulk electrostatic calculation are defined by superpositions of nuclear-centered spheres. The second component is called the cavity-dispersion-solvent-structure term and is the contribution arising from short-range interactions between the solute and solvent molecules in the first solvation shell. This contribution is a sum of terms that are proportional (with geometry-dependent proportionality constants called atomic surface tensions) to the solvent-accessible surface areas of the individual atoms of the solute. The SMD model has been parametrized with a training set of 2821 solvation data including 112 aqueous ionic solvation free energies, 220 solvation free energies for 166 ions in acetonitrile, methanol, and dimethyl sulfoxide, 2346 solvation free energies for 318 neutral solutes in 91 solvents (90 nonaqueous organic solvents and water), and 143 transfer free energies for 93 neutral solutes between water and 15 organic solvents. The elements present in the solutes are H, C, N, O, F, Si, P, S, Cl, and Br. The SMD model employs a single set of parameters (intrinsic atomic Coulomb radii and atomic surface tension coefficients) optimized over six electronic structure methods: M05-2X/MIDI!6D, M05-2X/6-31G, M05-2X/6-31+G, M05-2X/cc-pVTZ, B3LYP/6-31G, and HF/6-31G. Although the SMD model has been parametrized using the IEF-PCM protocol for bulk electrostatics, it may also be employed with other algorithms for solving the nonhomogeneous Poisson equation for continuum solvation calculations in which the solute is represented by its electron density in real space. This includes, for example, the conductor-like screening algorithm. With the 6-31G basis set, the SMD model achieves mean unsigned errors of 0.6-1.0 kcal/mol in the solvation free energies of tested neutrals and mean unsigned errors of 4 kcal/mol on average for ions with either Gaussian03 or GAMESS.
Although density functional theory is widely used in the computational chemistry community, the most popular density functional, B3LYP, has some serious shortcomings: (i) it is better for main-group chemistry than for transition metals; (ii) it systematically underestimates reaction barrier heights; (iii) it is inaccurate for interactions dominated by medium-range correlation energy, such as van der Waals attraction, aromatic-aromatic stacking, and alkane isomerization energies. We have developed a variety of databases for testing and designing new density functionals. We used these data to design new density functionals, called M06-class (and, earlier, M05-class) functionals, for which we enforced some fundamental exact constraints such as the uniform-electron-gas limit and the absence of self-correlation energy. Our M06-class functionals depend on spin-up and spin-down electron densities (i.e., spin densities), spin density gradients, spin kinetic energy densities, and, for nonlocal (also called hybrid) functionals, Hartree-Fock exchange. We have developed four new functionals that overcome the above-mentioned difficulties: (a) M06, a hybrid meta functional, is a functional with good accuracy "across-the-board" for transition metals, main group thermochemistry, medium-range correlation energy, and barrier heights; (b) M06-2X, another hybrid meta functional, is not good for transition metals but has excellent performance for main group chemistry, predicts accurate valence and Rydberg electronic excitation energies, and is an excellent functional for aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions; (c) M06-L is not as accurate as M06 for barrier heights but is the most accurate functional for transition metals and is the only local functional (no Hartree-Fock exchange) with better across-the-board average performance than B3LYP; this is very important because only local functionals are affordable for many demanding applications on very large systems; (d) M06-HF has good performance for valence, Rydberg, and charge transfer excited states with minimal sacrifice of ground-state accuracy. In this Account, we compared the performance of the M06-class functionals and one M05-class functional (M05-2X) to that of some popular functionals for diverse databases and their performance on several difficult cases. The tests include barrier heights, conformational energy, and the trend in bond dissociation energies of Grubbs' ruthenium catalysts for olefin metathesis. Based on these tests, we recommend (1) the M06-2X, BMK, and M05-2X functionals for main-group thermochemistry and kinetics, (2) M06-2X and M06 for systems where main-group thermochemistry, kinetics, and noncovalent interactions are all important, (3) M06-L and M06 for transition metal thermochemistry, (4) M06 for problems involving multireference rearrangements or reactions where both organic and transition-metal bonds are formed or broken, (5) M06-2X, M05-2X, M06-HF, M06, and M06-L for the study of noncovalent interactions, (6) M06-HF when the use of full Hartree-Fock e...
We present a new hybrid meta exchange-correlation functional, called M05-2X, for thermochemistry, thermochemical kinetics, and noncovalent interactions. We also provide a full discussion of the new M05 functional, previously presented in a short communication. The M05 functional was parametrized including both metals and nonmetals, whereas M05-2X is a high-nonlocality functional with double the amount of nonlocal exchange (2X) that is parametrized only for nonmetals. In particular, M05 was parametrized against 35 data values, and M05-2X is parametrized against 34 data values. Both functionals, along with 28 other functionals, have been comparatively assessed against 234 data values: the MGAE109/3 main-group atomization energy database, the IP13/3 ionization potential database, the EA13/3 electron affinity database, the HTBH38/4 database of barrier height for hydrogen-transfer reactions, five noncovalent databases, two databases involving metal-metal and metal-ligand bond energies, a dipole moment database, a database of four alkyl bond dissociation energies of alkanes and ethers, and three total energies of one-electron systems. We also tested the new functionals and 12 others for eight hydrogen-bonding and stacking interaction energies in nucleobase pairs, and we tested M05 and M05-2X and 19 other functionals for the geometry, dipole moment, and binding energy of HCN-BF3, which has recently been shown to be a very difficult case for density functional theory. We tested eight functionals for four more alkyl bond dissociation energies, and we tested 12 functionals for several additional bond energies with varying amounts of multireference character. On the basis of all the results for 256 data values in 18 databases in the present study, we recommend M05-2X, M05, PW6B95, PWB6K, and MPWB1K for general-purpose applications in thermochemistry, kinetics, and noncovalent interactions involving nonmetals and we recommend M05 for studies involving both metallic and nonmetallic elements. The M05 functional, essentially uniquely among the functionals with broad applicability to chemistry, also performs well not only for main-group thermochemistry and radical reaction barrier heights but also for transition-metal-transition-metal interactions. The M05-2X functional has the best performance for thermochemical kinetics, noncovalent interactions (especially weak interaction, hydrogen bonding, π···π stacking, and interactions energies of nucleobases), and alkyl bond dissociation energies and the best composite results for energetics, excluding metals.
Abstract.We present a new local density functional, called M06-L, for main-group and transition element thermochemistry, thermochemical kinetics, and noncovalent interactions. The functional is designed to capture the main dependence of the exchangecorrelation energy on local spin density, spin density gradient, and spin kinetic energy density, and it is parametrized to satisfy the uniform-electron-gas limit and to have good performance for both main-group chemistry and transition metal chemistry. The M06-L functional and 14 other functionals have been comparatively assessed against 22 energetic databases. Among the tested functionals, which include the popular B3LYP, BLYP, and BP86 functionals as well as our previous M05 functional, the M06-L functional gives the best overall performance for a combination of main group thermochemistry, thermochemical kinetics, and organometallic, inorganometallic, biological, and noncovalent interactions. It is also does very well for predicting geometries and vibrational frequencies. Because of the computational advantages of local functionals, the present functional should be very useful for many applications in chemistry, especially for simulations on moderate-sized and large systems and when long time scales must be addressed.
A summary of the technical advances that are incorporated in the fourth major release of the Q-Chem quantum chemistry program is provided, covering approximately the last seven years. These include developments in density functional theory methods and algorithms, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) property evaluation, coupled cluster and perturbation theories, methods for electronically excited and openshell species, tools for treating extended environments, algorithms for walking on potential surfaces, analysis tools, energy and electron transfer modelling, parallel computing capabilities, and graphical user interfaces. In addition, a selection of example case studies that illustrate these capabilities is given. These include extensive benchmarks of the comparative accuracy of modern density functionals for bonded and non-bonded interactions, tests of attenuated second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) methods for intermolecular interactions, a variety of parallel performance benchmarks, and tests of the accuracy of implicit solvation models. Some specific chemical examples include calculations on the strongly correlated Cr 2 dimer, exploring zeolitecatalysed ethane dehydrogenation, energy decomposition analysis of a charged ter-molecular complex arising from glycerol photoionisation, and natural transition orbitals for a Frenkel exciton state in a nine-unit model of a self-assembling nanotube.Keywords quantum chemistry, software, electronic structure theory, density functional theory, electron correlation, computational modelling, Q-Chem Disciplines Chemistry CommentsThis article is from Molecular Physics: An International Journal at the Interface Between Chemistry and Physics 113 (2015): 184, doi:10.1080/00268976.2014. RightsWorks produced by employees of the U.S. Government as part of their official duties are not copyrighted within the U.S. The content of this document is not copyrighted. Authors 185A summary of the technical advances that are incorporated in the fourth major release of the Q-CHEM quantum chemistry program is provided, covering approximately the last seven years. These include developments in density functional theory methods and algorithms, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) property evaluation, coupled cluster and perturbation theories, methods for electronically excited and open-shell species, tools for treating extended environments, algorithms for walking on potential surfaces, analysis tools, energy and electron transfer modelling, parallel computing capabilities, and graphical user interfaces. In addition, a selection of example case studies that illustrate these capabilities is given. These include extensive benchmarks of the comparative accuracy of modern density functionals for bonded and non-bonded interactions, tests of attenuated second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) methods for intermolecular interactions, a variety of parallel performance benchmarks, and tests of the accuracy of implicit solvation models. Some specific chemical examples include calculations on the strongly corre...
Atomic radii are not precisely defined but are nevertheless widely used parameters in modeling and understanding molecular structure and interactions. The van der Waals radii determined by Bondi from molecular crystals and noble gas crystals are the most widely used values, but Bondi recommended radius values for only 28 of the 44 main-group elements in the periodic table. In the present article we present atomic radii for the other 16; these new radii were determined in a way designed to be compatible with Bondi’s scale. The method chosen is a set of two-parameter correlations of Bondi’s radii with repulsive-wall distances calculated by relativistic coupled-cluster electronic structure calculations. The newly determined radii (in Å) are Be, 1.53; B, 1.92; Al, 1.84; Ca, 2.31; Ge, 2.11; Rb, 3.03; Sr, 2.50; Sb, 2.06; Cs, 3.43; Ba, 2.68; Bi, 2.07; Po, 1.97; At, 2.02; Rn, 2.20; Fr, 3.48; and Ra, 2.83.
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