Our results show that extensive C. auris contamination can occur and highlight the importance of adherence to appropriate infection control practices and disinfection strategies. Observed genetic diversity supports healthcare transmission and a recent expansion of C. auris within Colombia with divergent AmB susceptibility.
Cat-transmitted sporotrichosis caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis has become a major public health concern and presents a distinct divergence from the traditional epidemiology of sporotrichosis. This emerging fungal pathogen spreads readily among cat populations, and human infections occur exclusively via zoonotic transmission. While sporotrichosis is an implantation mycosis that typically manifests as cutaneous lesions in humans and cats, severe extracutaneous manifestations are more common with S. brasiliensis than other Sporothrix species infections. Rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment regimens are critical for successful clinical resolution of sporotrichosis in both cats and humans. Species-level identification of Sporothrix is possible with molecular diagnostics and necessary for tracking the geographic expansion of S. brasiliensis and better understanding its epidemiology. Combatting cat-transmitted sporotrichosis requires a One Health approach to successfully implement public health control measures.
Histoplasmosis is an important cause of mortality in patients with AIDS, especially in countries with limited access to antiretroviral therapies and diagnostic tests. However, many disseminated infections in Latin America go undiagnosed. A simple, rapid method to detect infection in regions where histoplasmosis is endemic would dramatically decrease the time to diagnosis and treatment, reducing morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to validate a commercial monoclonal galactomannan (HGM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Immuno-Mycologics [IMMY], Norman, OK, USA) in two cohorts of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). We analyzed urine samples from 589 people (466 from Guatemala and 123 from Colombia), including 546 from PLHIV and 43 from non-PLHIV controls. Sixty-three of these people (35 from Guatemala and 28 from Colombia) had confirmed histoplasmosis by isolation of Using the standard curve provided by the quantitative commercial test, the sensitivity was 98% (95% confidence interval [CI], 95 to 100%) and the specificity was 97% (95% CI, 96 to 99%) (cutoff = 0.5 ng/ml). Semiquantitative results, using a calibrator of 12.5 ng/ml of galactomannan to calculate an enzyme immunoassay index value (EIV) for the samples, showed a sensitivity of 95% (95% CI, 89 to 100%) and a specificity of 98% (95% CI, 96 to 99%) (cutoff ≥ 2.6 EIV). This relatively simple-to-perform commercial antigenuria test showed a high performance with reproducible results in both countries, suggesting that it can be used to detect progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in PLHIV in a wide range of clinical laboratories in countries where histoplasmosis is endemic.
Histoplasmosis is an important cause of mortality in people with advanced HIV, especially in countries with limited access to diagnostic assays. Histoplasmosis can be diagnosed using culture, histopathology, and antibody, antigen, and molecular assays. Several factors may affect the analytical performance of these laboratory assays, including sample type, clinical stage of the disease, and previous use of antifungal treatment, among others. Here we describe the results of a systematic literature review, followed by a meta-analysis of the analytical performances of the diagnostic laboratory assays employed. Our initial search identified 1631 references, of which 1559 references were excluded after title and abstract screening, leaving 72 references identified as studies relevant to the validation of histoplasmosis diagnostic assays. After evaluating the full text, 30 studies were selected for final review, including one paper not identified in the initial search. The meta-analysis for assay analytical performance shows the following results for the overall sensitivity (Sen) and specificity (Spe) of the various methods evaluated: Culture, Sen 77% (no data for specificity calculation); antibody detection assays, Sen 58%/Spe 100%; antigen detection assays, Sen 95%/Spe 97%; and DNA detection assays (molecular), Sen 95%/Spe 99%. Of the 30 studies reviewed, nearly half (n = 13) evaluated Histoplasma antigen assays, which were determined to be the most accurate methodology for diagnosis of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in advanced HIV (inverse of the negative likelihood ratio was 13.2). Molecular assays appear promising for accurate diagnosis of histoplasmosis, but consensus on exact techniques is needed. Cultures showed variable sensitivity related to sample type and laboratory handling. Finally, antibody assays presented high specificity but low sensitivity. This poor sensitivity is most likely due the highly immunosuppressed state of this patient population. Diagnostic assays are crucial for accurate diagnosis of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis (PDH) with advanced HIV disease.
Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen. Since first reported in 2009, C. auris has caused healthcare outbreaks around the world, often involving high mortality. Identification of C. auris has been a major challenge as many common conventional laboratory methods cannot accurately detect it. Early detection and implementation of infection control practices can prevent its spread. The aim of this review is to describe recommendations for the detection and control of C. auris in healthcare settings. most common misidentifications based on frequently used yeast identification methods [5,6]. However, efforts to improve C. auris identification methods have made substantial progress in the last few years. The development of a high-salt, high-temperature enrichment culture-based method has made it possible to reliably isolate C. auris from complex sample types . Once an isolate is obtained, identification of C. auris can be efficiently accomplished with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. For MALDI-TOF identification, it is important to ensure C. auris is in the reference database [5,6,10]. The Bruker Biotyper (Bruker Daltonik GmbH, Bremen, Germany) and the VITEK MS (bioMérieux, Marcy, L'Etoile, France) include C. auris in their Research Use Only and certain versions of their FDA-approved system databases [3,5,11]. If MALDI-TOF is not available, laboratories can reliably identify an isolate by sequencing the D1-D2 region of the 28s rDNA or the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA .
SummaryCandida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) fungus associated with invasive infections and high mortality. This report describes 9 patients from whom C. auris was isolated at a hospital in Panama City, Panama, the first such cases in Central America, and highlights the challenges of accurate identification and methods for susceptibility testing.
K E Y W O R D Sacurate, Candida auris, diagnose, susceptibility
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