Objectives: Labor induction is indicated in 20% to 40% of pregnancies. Over half of pregnancies qualified for the induction of labor require stimulation of the cervix to ripen. The drug used increasingly more often in pre-induction is the PGE-1 prostaglandin analog -misoprostol 200 μg.
Material and methods:The study includes a total of 100 patients qualified for labor pre-induction with Misodel® (misoprostol 200 μg vaginal insert). The study group comprises two subgroups: primigravidas and multiparas. Assessments included: indications for labor pre-induction, time from Misodel application to delivery, caesarean section rate and indications, duration of first and second stage of labor, rate of vaginal deliveries, need for oxytocin or fenoterol administration side effects and newborn condition.
Results:The most common indication for labor induction was gestational diabetes and pregnancy past term. The average time to vaginal delivery was 14 h 45 min, time to the onset of active phase of labor -11 h 45 min, time to membranes' rupture -15 h, time to vaginal delivery -14 h 18 min. The times of multiparas were significantly shorter. The rate of vaginal deliveries within 12 hours amounted to 42.42%, while within 24 hours it reached 83.33%. The overall caesarean section rate was 33%. The most common indication for caesarean section was the risk of intrauterine hypoxia. Tachysystole and hyperstimulation was observed in 4% of cases, while abnormalities in the cardiotocographic tracing in 43%.
Conclusions:Misodel is an effective method for labor pre-induction, without affecting the caesarean section rate and has no adverse effect on the newborn condition.
Ten human gracilis muscles obtained from adults and ten gracilis muscles collected from human foetuses between the 15th and 21st week of gestation were examined. The results of this preparatory study show that the gracilis muscle in adults is narrow and long - 482 mm on average. The distal tendon of gracilis muscle is long, 294 mm on average. It can be divided into two sections - external part, outside the muscle belly, and internal, intramuscular, part. The latter one is partially covered by muscle fibres and some of it is completely hidden inside the muscle belly, which is on average 76 mm long. Presence of an intramuscular part of the distal tendon was also demonstrated in the foetal material. Moreover, very strong correlations between particular muscle lengths were noted in foetuses. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 1: 138-143).
The pterygoid hamulus (PH) is located in the infratemporal fossa and is part of the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone. Its location on the cranial base and the multitude of anatomical structures whose attachments lie on the surface of the pterygoid hamulus make it of high functional and topographic significance. Due to insufficient literature on the PH morphometry, we decided to study this issue using modern and archaeological material. In total, 99 observations were subjected to quantitative and qualitative analysis (50 - from modern times and 49 - from medieval times). On the basis of the statistical analysis, statistically significant differences in the length of PH were found with respect to age and sex. Statistically significant differences in the PH width were also noticed with respect to sex and the period of origin. The results obtained may help better understand the development mechanism of the pterygoid hamulus bursitis.
The semitendinosus muscle has a unique anatomical structure. Its long and strong distal tendon is frequently selected as a material for autogenous grafts in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The article provides an overview of literature concerning the little known process of spontaneous regeneration of the semitendinosus tendon after its harvesting. Subsequent to harvesting, the muscle devoid of its distal tendon demonstrates regeneration potential. It sends an outgrowth which is structurally very similar to the original tendon. This process is observed in the majority of patients. This tendon-like structure usually attaches to fascial structures below the knee joint. There are suggestions that partial functional recovery of the muscle from which the tendon has been harvested is possible.
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