This book is a comprehensive introduction to the mechanical properties of ceramics, and is designed primarily as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate students in materials science and engineering. Over the past 25 years ceramics have become key materials in the development of many new technologies as scientists have been able to design these materials with new structures and properties. An understanding of the factors that influence their mechanical behavior and reliability is essential. This book will introduce the reader to current concepts in the field. It contains problems and exercises to help readers develop their skills. Although designed principally as a textbook for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, this book will also be of value as a supplementary text for more general courses and to industrial scientists and engineers involved in the development of ceramic-based products, materials selection and mechanical design.
Homo naledi is a previously-unknown species of extinct hominin discovered within the Dinaledi Chamber of the Rising Star cave system, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa. This species is characterized by body mass and stature similar to small-bodied human populations but a small endocranial volume similar to australopiths. Cranial morphology of H. naledi is unique, but most similar to early Homo species including Homo erectus, Homo habilis or Homo rudolfensis. While primitive, the dentition is generally small and simple in occlusal morphology. H. naledi has humanlike manipulatory adaptations of the hand and wrist. It also exhibits a humanlike foot and lower limb. These humanlike aspects are contrasted in the postcrania with a more primitive or australopith-like trunk, shoulder, pelvis and proximal femur. Representing at least 15 individuals with most skeletal elements repeated multiple times, this is the largest assemblage of a single species of hominins yet discovered in Africa.
Summary Between 1988 and 2001, we studied social relationships in the superb fairy‐wren Malurus cyaneus (Latham), a cooperative breeder with male helpers in which extra‐group fertilizations are more common than within‐pair fertilizations. Unlike other fairy‐wren species, females never bred on their natal territory. First‐year females dispersed either directly from their natal territory to a breeding vacancy or to a foreign ‘staging‐post’ territory where they spent their first winter as a subordinate. Females dispersing to a foreign territory settled in larger groups. Females on foreign territories inherited the territory if the dominant female died, and were sometimes able to split the territory into two by pairing with a helper male. However, most dispersed again to obtain a vacancy. Females dispersing from a staging post usually gained a neighbouring vacancy, but females gaining a vacancy directly from their natal territory travelled further, perhaps to avoid pairing or mating with related males. Females frequently divorced their partner, although the majority of relationships were terminated by the death of one of the pair. If death did not intervene, one‐third of pairings were terminated by female‐initiated divorce within 1000 days. Three divorce syndromes were recognized. First, females that failed to obtain a preferred territory moved to territories with more helpers. Secondly, females that became paired to their sons when their partner died usually divorced away from them. Thirdly, females that have been in a long relationship divorce once a son has gained the senior helper position. Dispersal to avoid pairing with sons is consistent with incest avoidance. However, there may be two additional benefits. Mothers do not mate with their sons, so dispersal by the mother liberates her sons to compete for within‐group matings. Further, divorcing once their son has become a breeder or a senior helper allows the female to start sons in a queue for dominance on another territory. Females that do not take this option face constraints on their ability to recruit more sons into the local neighbourhood.
Various forms of damage were observed in pressure‐less‐sintered Al2O3/ZrO2symmetric laminates and asymmetric laminates (bilayers) fabricated by tape casting and lamination. These defects included channel cracks in the ZrO2 layers, Al2O3 edge‐effect cracks parallel to the layers, delamination in the Al2O3layers, and debonding between the Al2O3and ZrO2layers. Based on detailed microscopic observations, the defects were attributed to sintering rate and thermal expansion mismatch between the layers. Cracks or cracklike defects were formed in the early stages of densification, and these cracks either opened during sintering or acted as preexisting flaws for thermal expansion mismatch cracks. Consequently, the extent of cracking could be reduced or even eliminated by decreasing mismatch stresses during the sintering and cooling stages. This can be accomplished by reducing the heating and/or cooling rates or by adding Al2O3in the ZrO2layers. The sintering mismatch stresses were estimated from the degree of curling in asymmetric laminates and from layer viscosities that were obtained by cyclic loading dilatometry. The measured curvature was an indication of the mismatch in sintering strain between Al2O3and ZrO2and were consistent with the dilatometric data that were obtained for the component layers.
Summary 1.Correlational studies of reproductive success are plagued by difficulty over the direction of causation. For example, improved reproductive success with age can result from increased experience or reproductive effort, or selection against low-quality phenotypes that survive poorly. An association between supernumeraries and reproductive success in cooperative breeders can arise either because supernumeraries boost productivity, or productive territories accumulate supernumeraries. 2. Paired comparisons of parents sampled with and without supernumeraries have recently been widely applied to quantify help. However, Dickinson & Hatchwell (2004) have argued that this approach is flawed. They conjectured that those groups that gain supernumeraries are a biased superior sample of those that initially lack supernumeraries, while groups that lose supernumeraries will be a sample of inferior cooperative groups. They predict that these biased comparisons will underestimate the effect of help. 3. This conjecture has neither been explored theoretically, nor empirically tested. We use data from a 19-year study of the superb fairy-wren Malurus cyaneus to examine the conjecture and derive predictors of annual reproductive success in this species. 4. We introduce statistical models of reproductive success based on a zero-inflated Poisson link function to identify three strong correlates of reproductive success: high spring rainfall, progress from the first to later years of life, and acquisition of supernumeraries. 5. First year females that died after breeding and those that survived to breed again had similar productivity. As female productivity improves with age, increased reproductive skill or effort is implicated rather than selection against inferior phenotypes. 6. We argue that the Dickinson-Hatchwell conjecture does not constrain paired comparisons in M. cyaneus . The dominant male and breeding female gain no immediate fecundity advantage from supernumeraries. 7. Effects on the future survival of dominants are even more difficult, as while helpers could enhance survival of dominants, a territory that facilitates survival should also accumulate philopatric supernumeraries. Males, the philopatric sex, did not survive better on territories with supernumeraries. However, females, the dispersive sex, had higher survival as the number of supernumeraries increased, because helpers allowed them to reduce the costs of reproduction. These data exacerbate the paradox posed by previously reported costs that supernumeraries impose on dominant males.
The ability to make behavioural inferences from skeletal remains is critical to understanding the lifestyles and activities of past human populations and extinct animals. Muscle attachment site (enthesis) morphology has long been assumed to reflect muscle strength and activity during life, but little experimental evidence exists to directly link activity patterns with muscle development and the morphology of their attachments to the skeleton. We used a mouse model to experimentally test how the level and type of activity influences forelimb muscle architecture of spinodeltoideus, acromiodeltoideus, and superficial pectoralis, bone growth rate and gross morphology of their insertion sites. Over an 11-week period, we collected data on activity levels in one control group and two experimental activity groups (running, climbing) of female wild-type mice. Our results show that both activity type and level increased bone growth rates influenced muscle architecture, including differences in potential muscular excursion (fibre length) and potential force production (physiological cross-sectional area). However, despite significant influences on muscle architecture and bone development, activity had no observable effect on enthesis morphology. These results suggest that the gross morphology of entheses is less reliable than internal bone structure for making inferences about an individual’s past behaviour.
To analyze the inhibited densification during sintering and differential shrinkage during cooling of Al 2 O 3 /ZrO 2 symmetric and asymmetric laminates, viscoelastic formulations, in which the viscosity and elastic modulus vary with time, have been developed. The viscoelastic mismatch stresses have been numerically computed over the entire processing cycle, including the heating period, the isothermal period, and the cooling period. The viscosity and free sintering rates that are needed for stress computation have been obtained by modifying the parameters that are measured for a normal isotropic densifying compact using cyclic loading dilatometry. The modification is based on the available sintering models to account for the effect of strain history on compact viscosity and sintering rates. The stress calculation shows that, with the exception of the initial heating period, the viscoelastic stress is identical to the viscous stress that is calculated solely from the strain rate mismatch. Sintering damage in the laminates is shown to occur during densification under conditions where the differential sintering stress is smaller than the intrinsic sintering pressure. The magnitude of residual stress in hybrid laminates on cooling is dependent on the cooling rate, and slower cooling rates are capable of almost completely relaxing the expansion mismatch stress at temperatures of >1200°C.
Partial migration is thought to be a critical step in the evolution of avian migration, but data on the life history correlates of alternative migratory strategies are extremely limited. We have studied a partially migratory population of American Dippers since 1999. This population is composed of sedentary individuals (residents) that maintain the same territory year round and altitudinal migrants that share winter grounds with residents, but move to higher elevations to breed. We used seven years of data on individually marked birds to (1) determine if individuals consistently use the same migratory strategy, (2) determine if offspring have the same strategy as their parents, and (3) estimate reproductive and survival rates of the two migratory strategies. We evaluate hypotheses for the persistence of partial migration and discuss their implication for the evolution of migration in sedentary populations. Individual American Dippers rarely switched migratory strategy (4/169 monitored more than one year). An individual's strategy, however, was not always that of its parents, indicating that, while migratory behavior may have a genetic component, environmental or social conditions probably influence the migratory strategy that an individual adopts. Sedentary dippers consistently had higher annual productivity (approximately 1.4 more fledglings/year) than migratory dippers, but mark-recapture models suggested that migratory dippers may have slightly higher survival than residents (approximately 3.4%). Migrants were estimated to have lower lifetime reproductive success than residents because their higher survival was insufficient to offset their lower productivity. Our data suggest that alternative migratory strategies in American Dippers are unlikely to be a fixed genetic dimorphism that persists because the two strategies have equal fitness, or because the relative fitness of the two strategies fluctuates over time. Migratory strategies in American Dippers are more likely to be condition dependent, and the two strategies persist because migrants "make the best of a bad job" by moving to higher elevations to breed. Because migrants obtained no fitness benefits by moving to seasonal breeding territories, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that migration could evolve in sedentary populations if competition for limited resources forces some individuals to seek breeding opportunities outside their initial range.
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