International audienceIn this paper we introduce a new family of partial difference operators on graphs and study equations involving these operators. This family covers local variational $p$-Laplacian, $\infty$-Laplacian, nonlocal $p$-Laplacian and $\infty$-Laplacian, $p$-Laplacian with gradient terms, and gradient operators used in morphology based on the partial differential equation. We analyze a corresponding parabolic equation involving these operators which enables us to interpolate adaptively between $p$-Laplacian diffusion-based filtering and morphological filtering, i.e., erosion and dilation. Then, we consider the elliptic partial difference equation with its corresponding Dirichlet problem and we prove the existence and uniqueness of respective solutions. For $p=\infty$, we investigate the connection with Tug-of-War games. Finally, we demonstrate the adaptability of this new formulation for different tasks in image and point cloud processing, such as filtering, segmentation, clustering, and inpainting
Graph-based methods have been proposed as a unified framework for discrete calculus of local and nonlocal image processing methods in the recent years. In order to translate variational models and partial differential equations to a graph, certain operators have been investigated and successfully applied to real-world applications involving graph models. So far the graph framework has been limited to real-and vector-valued functions on Euclidean domains. In this paper we generalize this model to the case of manifold-valued data. We introduce the basic calculus needed to formulate variational models and partial differential equations for manifold-valued functions and discuss the proposed graph framework for two particular families of operators, namely, the isotropic and anisotropic graph p-Laplacian operators, p ≥ 1. Based on the choice of p we are in particular able to solve optimization problems on manifold-valued functions involving total variation (p = 1) and Tikhonov (p = 2) regularization. Finally, we present numerical results from processing both synthetic as well as real-world manifold-valued data, e.g., from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. * Felix-Klein-Zentrum,
This paper introduces a new notion of a Fenchel conjugate, which generalizes the classical Fenchel conjugation to functions defined on Riemannian manifolds. We investigate its properties, e.g., the Fenchel–Young inequality and the characterization of the convex subdifferential using the analogue of the Fenchel–Moreau Theorem. These properties of the Fenchel conjugate are employed to derive a Riemannian primal-dual optimization algorithm and to prove its convergence for the case of Hadamard manifolds under appropriate assumptions. Numerical results illustrate the performance of the algorithm, which competes with the recently derived Douglas–Rachford algorithm on manifolds of nonpositive curvature. Furthermore, we show numerically that our novel algorithm may even converge on manifolds of positive curvature.
The biophysical and biochemical properties of live tissues are important in the context of development and disease. Methods for evaluating these properties typically involve destroying the tissue or require specialized technology and complicated analyses. Here, we present a novel, noninvasive methodology for determining the spatial distribution of tissue features within embryos, making use of nondirectionally migrating cells and software we termed “Landscape,” which performs automatized high-throughput three-dimensional image registration. Using the live migrating cells as bioprobes, we identified structures within the zebrafish embryo that affect the distribution of the cells and studied one such structure constituting a physical barrier, which, in turn, influences amoeboid cell polarity. Overall, this work provides a unique approach for detecting tissue properties without interfering with animal’s development. In addition, Landscape allows for integrating data from multiple samples, providing detailed and reliable quantitative evaluation of variable biological phenotypes in different organisms.
In this work we investigate the computation of nonlinear eigenfunctions via the extinction profiles of gradient flows. We analyze a scheme that recursively subtracts such eigenfunctions from given data and show that this procedure yields a decomposition of the data into eigenfunctions in some cases as the 1-dimensional total variation, for instance. We discuss results of numerical experiments in which we use extinction profiles and the gradient flow for the task of spectral graph clustering as used, e.g., in machine learning applications.
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