Current hip replacement femoral implants are made of fully solid materials which all have stiffness considerably higher than that of bone. This mechanical mismatch can cause significant bone resorption secondary to stress shielding, which can lead to serious complications such as periprosthetic fracture during or after revision surgery. In this work, a high strength fully porous material with tunable mechanical properties is introduced for use in hip replacement design. The implant macro geometry is based off of a short stem taper-wedge implant compatible with minimally invasive hip replacement surgery. […] We show that the fully porous implant with an optimized material microstructure can reduce the amount of bone loss secondary to stress shielding by 75% compared to a fully solid implant. This result also agrees with those of the in-vitro quasi-physiological experimental model and the corresponding finite element model for both the optimized fully porous and fully solid implant These studies demonstrate the merit and the potential of tuning material architecture to achieve a substantial reduction of bone resorption secondary to stress shielding
We present a monolithic mechanical metamaterial comprising a periodic arrangement of snapping units with tunable tensile behavior. Under tension, the metamaterial undergoes a large extension caused by sequential snap-through instabilities, and exhibits a pattern switch from an undeformed wavy-shape to a diamond configuration. By means of experiments performed on 3D printed prototypes, numerical simulations and theoretical modeling, we demonstrate how the snapping architecture can be tuned to generate a range of nonlinear mechanical responses including monotonic, S-shaped, plateau and non-monotonic snap-through behavior. This work contributes to the development of design strategies that allow programming nonlinear mechanical responses in solids.Mechanical metamaterials are man-made materials, usually fashioned from repeating unit cells which are engineered to achieve extreme mechanical properties, often beyond those found in most natural materials. They gain their unusual, sometimes extraordinary, mechanicalproperties from their underlying architecture, rather than the composition of their constituents. Metamaterials exhibit interesting mechanical properties, such as negative Poisson's ratio, [2,3] negative incremental stiffness,  negative compressibility  and unusual dynamic behavior for wave propagation.  As Ron Resch (artist and applied geometrist) points out in his statement "the environment responds by collapsing quite often",  instabilities can be exploited to design advanced materials with innovative properties.  Recently, harnessing elastic instabilities played a central role in the rational design of novel 2D  and 3D  mechanical metamaterials with either significantly enhanced mechanical properties or equipped with new functionalities, e.g. programmable shape transformations.  In most of the examples mentioned above, elastic instabilities are exploited to trigger a pattern switch by a broken rotational symmetry, mostly governed by Euler buckling. In these works instabilities are induced by an applied compressive load.  This observation naturally leads to the question of whether one can either benefit from other mechanical instability mechanisms for metamaterial design or extend current concepts to other loading conditions. In this work, we exploit mechanical instabilities triggered by snap-through buckling to create a metamaterial which experiences a pseudo pattern switch in tension and exhibits a programmable mechanical response. Our design is inspired by a monolithic bistable mechanism,  i.e. two curved parallel beams that are centrally-clamped as schematized in Figure 1a. A normal force applied in the middle of the double-beam mechanism can prompt it to snap through to its second stable state ( Figure 1a, dashed lines). We release clamped conditions at both ends to create a repeatable unit cell (Figure 1b), composed of two centrally connected cosine-shaped slender segments, which can be tessellated in plane to form a periodic ar...
Auxetic materials become thicker rather than thinner when stretched, exhibiting an unusual negative Poisson's ratio well suited for designing shape transforming metamaterials. Current auxetic designs, however, are often monostable and cannot maintain the transformed shape upon load removal. Here, inspired by ancient geometric motifs arranged in square and triangular grids, we introduce a class of switchable architectured materials exhibiting simultaneous auxeticity and structural bistability. The material concept is experimentally realized by perforating various cut motifs into a sheet of rubber, thus creating a network of rotating units connected with compliant hinges. The metamaterial performance is assessed through mechanical testing and accurately predicted by a coherent set of finite element simulations. A discussion on a rich set of mechanical phenomena follows to shed light on the main design principles governing bistable auxetics.
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