Natural bioactive compounds include a broad diversity of structures and functionalities that provide an excellent pool of molecules for the production of nutraceuticals, functional foods, and food additives. Some of those compounds can be found in nature at high concentration such as polyphenols but others can only be found at very low levels, so that massive harvesting is needed to obtain sufficient amounts, and their structural diversity and complexity make chemical synthesis unprofitable. The inherent difficulties in screening and producing these compounds have led to the development of advanced technologies. The commonly used methods for their extraction are the conventional liquidliquid or solid-liquid extraction and the advanced include pressurized-liquid extraction, subcritical and supercritical extractions, and microwave-and ultrasound-assisted extractions. In addition, these extraction techniques have been improved with previous steps (enzyme-and instant controlled pressure drop-assisted extractions) which help to release the compounds from the matrix. These technologies could provide in the next few years an innovative approach to increase the production of specific compounds for use as nutraceuticals or as ingredients in the design of functional foods.
SummaryFlavour is a key quality att ribute of apples defi ned by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatt y and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre-and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple fl avour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may aff ect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production.
We assessed the antimicrobial activity of reuterin produced in vitro in glycerol aqueous solutions in situ by Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608 as part of a fermented milk product against starter (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus), spoilage (Penicillium expansum), pathogenic (Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes), and pathogen surrogate (Escherichia coli DH5α) microorganisms. We also assayed the influence of cold storage (28 d at 4°C) and reuterin on the color and rheology of the fermented milk product. We obtained maximum reuterin concentrations of 107.5 and 33.97 mM in glycerol aqueous solution and fermented milk product, respectively. Reuterin was stable throughout its refrigerated shelf life. Gram-positive microorganisms were more resistant to reuterin than gram-negative microorganisms. Penicillium expansum and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608 survived at concentrations up to 10 and 8.5 mM, respectively. Escherichia coli DH5α was the most sensitive to reuterin (0.9 mM). The presence of reuterin did not cause relevant changes in the quality parameters of the fermented milk product, including pH, acidity, soluble solids, color, and rheological aspects (storage and loss moduli and viscosity). This study demonstrated the viability of using Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608 as a biopreservative in a fermented milk product through reuterin synthesis, without drastically modifying its quality parameters.
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