Purpose: Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a rare autosomal dominant mandibulofacial dysostosis, with a prevalence of 0.2-1/ 10,000. Features include bilateral and symmetrical malar and mandibular hypoplasia and facial abnormalities due to abnormal neural crest cell (NCC) migration and differentiation. To date, three genes have been identified: TCOF1, POLR1C, and POLR1D. Despite a large number of patients with a molecular diagnosis, some remain without a known genetic anomaly. Methods: We performed exome sequencing for four individuals with TCS but who were negative for pathogenic variants in the known causative genes. The effect of the pathogenic variants was investigated in zebrafish. Results: We identified three novel pathogenic variants in POLR1B. Knockdown of polr1b in zebrafish induced an abnormal craniofacial phenotype mimicking TCS that was associated with altered ribosomal gene expression, massive p53-associated cellular apoptosis in the neuroepithelium, and reduced number of NCC derivatives. Conclusion: Pathogenic variants in the RNA polymerase I subunit POLR1B might induce massive p53-dependent apoptosis in a restricted neuroepithelium area, altering NCC migration and causing cranioskeletal malformations. We identify POLR1B as a new causative gene responsible for a novel TCS syndrome (TCS4) and establish a novel experimental model in zebrafish to study POLR1B-related TCS.
The novel biomarker QSOX1 accurately identifies ADHF, particularly when combined with BNP. Through both clinical and experimental studies we provide lines of evidence for a link between ADHF and cardiovascular production of QSOX1.
Pycnodysostosis is a lysosomal autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by osteosclerosis, short stature, acro‐osteolysis, facial features and an increased risk of fractures. The clinical heterogeneity of the disease and its rarity make it difficult to provide patients an accurate prognosis, as well as appropriate care and follow‐up. French physicians from the OSCAR network have been asked to fill out questionnaires collecting molecular and clinical data for 27 patients issued from 17 unrelated families. All patients showed short stature (mean = −3.5 SD) which was more severe in females (P = .006). The mean fracture rate was moderate (0.21 per year), with four fractures in total average. About 75% underwent at least one surgery, with an average number of 2.1 interventions per patient. About 50% required non‐invasive assisted ventilation due to sleep apnea (67%). About 29% showed psychomotor difficulties and 33% needed a school assistant or adapted schooling. No patient had any psychological evaluation or follow‐up. Molecular data were available for 14 families. Growth hormone administration was efficient on linear growth in 40% of cases. We propose several axis of management, such as systematic cerebral MRI for Chiari malformation screening at diagnosis and regular psychological follow‐up.
BackgroundWilson’s disease (WD) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disease caused by ATP7B gene mutations tat cause excessively high copper levels, particularly in the liver and brain. The WD phenotype varies in terms of its clinical presentation and intensity. Diagnosing this metabolic disorder is important as a lifelong treatment, based on the use of copper chelating agents or zinc salts, is more effective if it’s started early. Worldwide prevalence of WD is variable, with an average of 1/30,000. In France, a recent study based on French health insurance data estimated the clinical prevalence of the disease to be around 3/200,000.MethodsTo estimate the genetic prevalence of WD in France, we analysed the ATP7B gene by Next Generation Sequencing from a large French cohort of indiscriminate subjects.ResultsWe observed a high heterozygous carrier frequency of ATP7B in France. Among the 697 subjects studied, 18 variants classified as pathogenic or probably pathogenic were found at heterozygous level in 22 subjects (22 alleles/1394 alleles), yielding a prevalence of 0.032 or 1/31 subjects.ConclusionsThis considerable and unexplained discrepancy between the heterozygous carrier frequency and the clinical prevalence of WD may be explained by the clinical variability, the incomplete penetrance and the existence of modifiers genes. It suggests that the molecular analysis of ATP7B should be interpreted with caution, always alongside copper assays (ceruloplasmin, relative exchangeable copper, 24 h-urinary copper excretion) with particular respect to exome sequencing.
Background: Calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) microcrystal deposition is associated with wide clinical phenotypes, including acute and chronic arthritis, that are interleukin 1β (IL-1β)-driven. Two CPP microcrystals, namely monoclinic and triclinic CPP dihydrates (m- and t-CPPD), have been identified in human tissues in different proportions according to clinical features. m-CPP tetrahydrate beta (m-CPPTβ) and amorphous CPP (a-CPP) phases are considered as m- and t-CPPD crystal precursors in vitro.Objectives: We aimed to decipher the inflammatory properties of the three crystalline phases and one amorphous CPP phase and the intracellular pathways involved.Methods: The four synthesized CPP phases and monosodium urate crystals (MSU, as a control) were used in vitro to stimulate the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line or bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) isolated from WT or NLRP3 KO mice. The gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was evaluated by quantitative PCR; IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 production by ELISA; and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation by immunoblot analysis. NF-κB activation was determined in THP-1 cells containing a reporter plasmid. In vivo, the inflammatory potential of CPP phases was assessed with the murine air pouch model via cell analysis and production of IL-1β and CXCL1 in the exudate. The role of NF-κB was determined by a pharmacological approach, both in vivo and in vitro.Results: In vitro, IL-1β production induced by m- and t-CPPD and m-CPPTβ crystals was NLRP3 inflammasome dependent. m-CPPD crystals were the most inflammatory by inducing a faster and higher production and gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 than t-CPPD, m-CPPTβ and MSU crystals. The a-CPP phase did not show an inflammatory property. Accordingly, m-CPPD crystals led to stronger activation of NF-κB, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) MAPKs. Inhibition of NF-κB completely abrogated IL-1β and IL-8 synthesis and secretion induced by all CPP crystals. Also, inhibition of JNK and ERK1/2 MAPKs decreased both IL-1β secretion and NF-κB activation induced by CPP crystals. In vivo, IL-1β and CXCL1 production and neutrophil infiltration induced by m-CPPD crystals were greatly decreased by NF-κB inhibitor treatment.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the inflammatory potential of different CPP crystals relies on their ability to activate the MAPK-dependent NF-κB pathway. Studies are ongoing to investigate the underlying mechanisms.
Genetic determinants contribute to osteoporosis and enhance the risk of fracture. Genomewide association studies of unselected population‐based individuals or families have identified polymorphisms in several genes related to low bone density, but not in osteoporotic patients with Z‐score < −2.0 SD with fragility fracture(s). The aim of this study was to determine the causal genes of idiopathic osteoporosis in the adulthood. Also, we used next‐generation sequencing of candidate genes in a cohort of 123 young or middle‐aged adults with idiopathic osteoporosis. All patients were included if they had a low bone mineral density (Z‐score < −2 SD), a diagnosis before age 55 years (mean ± SD, 48.4 ± 10.6 years; mean ± SD age at first fracture, 30.4 ± 17.4 years) and fracture or not. We found that 11 patients carried rare or novel variants in COL1A2 (n = 4), PLS3 (n = 2), WNT1 (n = 4), or DKK1 (n = 1). We showed a high prevalence of pathogenic variants in LRP5: 22 patients (17.8%) had the p.Val667Met variant, including three at the homozygous level and 16 (13%) carrying a novel or very rare variant. Functional analysis revealed that the LRP5 missense variants resulted in reduced luciferase activity, which indicates reduced activation of canonical WNT signaling. The clinical phenotype of patients carrying causal gene variants was indistinguishable. In conclusion, molecular screening of young osteoporotic adults revealed several variants and could be useful to characterize susceptibility genes for personalizing treatment, in particular for the new anabolic drugs.© 2017 The Authors. JBMR Plus is published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Introduction Prognostic factors in intentional insulin selfpoisoning and the significance of plasma insulin levels are unclear. We therefore conducted this study to investigate prognostic factors in insulin poisoning, in relation to the value of plasma insulin concentration.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers