Temporal coherence (i.e., the degree of synchronicity of a given variable among ecological units within a predefined space) has been shown for several limnological features among temperate lakes, allowing predictions about the structure and function of ecosystems. However, there is little evidence of temporal coherence among tropical aquatic systems, where the climatic variability among seasons is less pronounced. Here, we used data from long-term monitoring of physical, chemical and biological variables to test the degree of temporal coherence among 18 tropical coastal lagoons. The water temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration had the highest and lowest temporal coherence among the lagoons, respectively, whereas the salinity and water colour had intermediate temporal coherence. The regional climactic factors were the main factors responsible for the coherence patterns in the water temperature and water colour, whereas the landscape position and morphometric characteristics explained much of the variation of the salinity and water colour among the lagoons. These results indicate that both local (lagoon morphometry) and regional (precipitation, air temperature) factors regulate the physical and chemical conditions of coastal lagoons by adjusting the terrestrial and marine subsidies at a landscape-scale. On the other hand, the chlorophyll-a concentration appears to be primarily regulated by specific local conditions resulting in a weak temporal coherence among the ecosystems. We concluded that temporal coherence in tropical ecosystems is possible, at least for some environmental features, and should be evaluated for other tropical ecosystems. Our results also reinforce that aquatic ecosystems should be studied more broadly to accomplish a full understanding of their structure and function.Keywords: synchrony, temporal coherence, local factors, regional factors, shallow lakes, coastal lagoons. Coerência temporal entre lagoas costeiras tropicais: uma busca por padrões e mecanismos ResumoA coerência temporal (i.e., o nível de sincronismo de uma dada variável ecológica entre unidades ecológicas) tem sido demonstrada para uma vasta gama de variáveis limnológicas em lagos de clima temperado, permitindo que predições sobre a estrutura e o funcionamento destes ecossistemas sejam realizadas. Entretanto, há pouca evidência da coerência temporal de variáveis limnológicas entre ecossistemas aquáticos tropicais, onde a variação climática é menos pronunciada entre as estações do ano. Neste estudo, utilizamos dados de longa duração do monitoramento de variáveis físicas, químicas e biológicas para testar a ocorrência de coerência temporal entre 18 lagoas costeiras tropicais. A temperatura da água e a concentração de clorofila-a apresentaram, respectivamente, a maior e a menor coerência temporal entre as lagoas, enquanto que a salinidade e a coloração da água apresentaram padrões intermediários. Fatores climáticos regionais foram os principais fatores responsáveis pelos padrões de coerência da temperatura e coloração d...
The main goal of this research was to evaluate whether the mixture of fresh labile dissolved organic matter (DOM) and accumulated refractory DOM influences bacterial production, respiration, and growth efficiency (BGE) in aquatic ecosystems. Bacterial batch cultures were set up using DOM leached from aquatic macrophytes as the fresh DOM pool and DOM accumulated from a tropical humic lagoon. Two sets of experiments were performed and bacterial growth was followed in cultures composed of each carbon substrate (first experiment) and by carbon substrates combined (second experiment), with and without the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus. In both experiments, bacterial production, respiration, and BGE were always higher in cultures with N and P additions, indicating a consistent inorganic nutrient limitation. Bacterial production, respiration, and BGE were higher in cultures set up with leachate DOM than in cultures set up with humic DOM, indicating that the quality of the organic matter pool influenced the bacterial growth. Bacterial production and respiration were higher in the mixture of substrates (second experiment) than expected by bacterial production and respiration in single substrate cultures (first experiment). We suggest that the differences in the concentration of some compounds between DOM sources, the co-metabolism on carbon compound decomposition, and the higher diversity of molecules possibly support a greater bacterial diversity which might explain the higher bacterial growth observed. Finally, our results indicate that the mixture of fresh labile and accumulated refractory DOM that naturally occurs in aquatic ecosystems could accelerate the bacterial growth and bacterial DOM removal.
Methane (CH4) emissions from lakes are the largest of the emissions from freshwater ecosystems. We compile open water CH4 emission estimates from individual lakes from all over the world and consider the three main emission pathways: diffusive; ebullitive; and storage. The relationships between emissions, environmental variables, lake characteristics and methodological approaches are investigated for the measurements from 297 lakes. We show that environmental factors, such as temperature and precipitation, act as important driving factors for CH4 emissions, with higher emissions occurring where air temperature and precipitation are high. The diffusive flux of CH4 was found to be positively related to dissolved organic carbon concentration. Diffusive flux is the most frequently estimated component of the total flux, while the other emission pathways are often neglected. Based on the cases where all three components of the total flux were measured (30 lakes), we estimate that measuring the diffusive emission only, and then assuming that the value obtained is a good surrogate for the total emission, would have led to a 277% underestimation of the real total flux. In addition we show that the estimation of fluxes is method-dependent with substantial differences revealed between the flux estimates obtained from different measurement techniques. Some of this uncertainty is due to technical constraints which should not be neglected, and lake CH4 flux measurement techniques require thorough re-evaluation.
a b s t r a c tThe vertical sediment profiles (10 cm) of the margins of three shallow subtropical lakes (Rio Grande, Brazil) with different trophic states and surrounding areas were evaluated to identify the effects of the allochthonous input on the methane concentration in the sediment. Sediment cores were collected to quantify the organic matter content (OM) and total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP) and methane (CH 4 ) concentrations.The three lakes were distinguished according to the trophic status and classified as oligotrophic, dystrophic and eutrophic. The natural characteristics of the dystrophic and eutrophic lakes have been changed due to the allochthonous input of leaves and twigs (Eucalyptus sp.) and the excreta of birds, respectively. In the eutrophic lake, the allochthonous input contributed to high autochthonous production. The highest values of OM, TC, TN and TP were found in the superficial sediments of the dystrophic and eutrophic lakes. The accumulation of allochthonous organic matter in the littoral zone promoted changes in the vertical sediment profiles and contributed to increases in the CH 4 concentrations in the sediment.
Alterations in methane concentration in the water column of aquatic systems is closely linked to the processes of production and consumption of this gas, i.e., methanogenesis and methanotrophy respectively. The aim of this research is to evaluate methane dynamics through diurnal variation in the concentration of this gas in the water column of two lakes differing in trophic status at the campus of Fundação Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG). In two sampling periods (November 2001 and July 2002)
The aim of this study was to evaluate methane concentration in water column and pore water at limnetic and littoral regions of a coastal lagoon. At the littoral region samples were taken from three monospecific macrophytes stands (Typha domingensis, Eleocharis interstincta and Potamogeton stenostachys). The methane concentration in the pore water at the littoral region was higher than the concentration found at the limnetic region in each fraction
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