Various agents have been applied topically to treat infected wounds for millennia, but their proper role remains unclear. Topical therapy affords many potential advantages but also has disadvantages. Opinions differ on which clinical signs define wound infection and on whether quantitative microbiological studies are useful. Clinically infected wounds usually require systemic antibiotic therapy, whereas clinically uninfected wounds that are healing as expected do not require antimicrobials. There is controversy over how to treat poorly healing wounds with "secondary" signs suggesting infection; these may benefit from topical antimicrobial agents. Some evidence supports using topical agents for malodorous or burn wounds. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews suggest there are few proven indications for topical antimicrobials. Use of a newer, relatively nontoxic antiseptic (eg, cadexomer iodine or silver dressings) is preferable to use of topical antibiotics, especially agents that are available for systemic use. We provide clinically relevant information on currently available topical antimicrobial agents.
Prostatitis is characterized by voiding symptoms and genitourinary pain and is sometimes associated with sexual dysfunction. Up to 25% of men receive a diagnosis of prostatitis in their lifetime, but <10% have a proven bacterial infection. The causes and treatment of nonbacterial prostatitis are largely unknown, but bacterial prostatitis is caused by infection with uropathogens, especially gram-negative bacilli, although infection is sometimes due to gram-positive and atypical microorganisms. Acute bacterial prostatitis is easily diagnosed (by abrupt urogential and often systemic symptoms, along with bacteriuria) and treated (by systemic antibiotic therapy). Chronic bacterial prostatitis is characterized by prolonged or recurrent symptoms and relapsing bacteriuria; diagnosis traditionally requires comparing urinary specimens obtained before with specimens obtained after prostatic massage. Treating chronic bacterial prostatitis requires prolonged therapy with an antibiotic that penetrates the prostate (ie, one with high lipid solubility, a low degree of ionization, high dissociation constant, low protein binding, and small molecular size). We review recent pharmacological and clinical data on treating bacterial prostatitis.
The randomised controlled trial data on the effectiveness and safety of topical antimicrobial treatments for diabetic foot ulcers is limited by the availability of relatively few, mostly small, and often poorly designed trials. Based on our systematic review and analysis of the literature, we suggest that: 1) use of an antimicrobial dressing instead of a non-antimicrobial dressing may increase the number of diabetic foot ulcers healed over a medium-term follow-up period (low-certainty evidence); and 2) there is probably little difference in the risk of adverse events related to treatment between systemic antibiotics and topical antimicrobial treatments based on the available studies (moderate-certainty evidence). For each of the other outcomes we examined there were either no reported data or the available data left us uncertain as to whether or not there were any differences between the compared treatments. Given the high, and increasing, frequency of diabetic foot wounds, we encourage investigators to undertake properly designed randomised controlled trials in this area to evaluate the effects of topical antimicrobial treatments for both the prevention and the treatment of infection in these wounds and ultimately the effects on wound healing.
Diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) complicates about 20% of diabetic foot infections (DFIs) and increases the risk of lower extremity amputation. This contentious infection is important to discuss, given the frequency with which diabetes mellitus and its complications occur and the devastating consequences of amputation. The diagnosis and management of DFO is complicated by the diverse presentations, delayed recognition, poorly defined diagnostic criteria, and lack of validated treatment regimens. Major issues of concern include when to undertake bone resection surgery and which antimicrobial agents to use, by what route, and for how long. Patients in whom DFO is suspected are best cared for by a multidisciplinary team, including infectious disease physicians or clinical microbiologists, orthopaedic, plastic and vascular surgeons, diabetologists, primary care physicians, podiatrists and specialist (especially tissue viability) nurses. Such multidisciplinary teams have repeatedly been shown to improve disease outcomes. We herein analyse the limited, and recently published, literature on the pharmacotherapy of DFO and put it into the broader context of management of DFI and osteomyelitis.
To evaluate clinical features of dogs with cholelithiasis and compare outcomes with medical treatment (MT), surgical treatment (ST) and no treatment (NT). MethodsRetrospective review of medical records of dogs with cholelithiasis identified on abdominal ultrasound (AUS) between 2010-2019. Cases were assigned as clinically affected (CA) or incidentally detected (ID) and divided into MT, ST and NT groups. Biochemical parameters and cholelith location were compared between groups with Mann-Whitney U and Chi-squared testing, respectively. Survival times were compared with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results18 dogs were CA and 20 where ID. CA dogs had significantly higher ALP, GGT and ALT than ID dogs. 8 cases were ST, 15 MT and 15 NT. ST dogs had significantly higher ALP, GGT, ALT and bilirubin than NT dogs. A significantly higher proportion of ST dogs had choleliths in the common bile duct than MT. 17 cases had follow-up AUS: cholelithiasis completely resolved at follow-up in 4/10 MT, 4/5 ST and 1/2 NT; decreased cholelith size or number occurred in 1/10 MT and 1/5 ST. Two MT dogs progressed to require surgery. Median survival time was 457.4 days, with no significant differences in survival between groups. Statement (conclusions)Dogs clinically affected by cholelithiasis have higher ALP, GGT and ALT than dogs with incidental cholelithiasis. 5/10 MT dogs had resolution or improvement of cholelithiasis, showing MT is effective for management of canine cholelithiasis with clinical signs and cholelith location playing a role in treatment decision-making. Survival time was not negatively affected by treatment choice.
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