The Swedish UNESCOWorld Cultural Heritage site ofthe Birka and HovgÔrden Iron Age settlementsiswellsuitedfor the testing of high-resolution archaeologicalprospection methods.In May 2006 ground-penetratingradar (GPR) and magnetometer test measurementswere conducted at Birka, resultingin data ofoutstanding qualityand new archaeological discoveries, but also demonstrating the need for increased spatial sampling regarding GPR prospection at complex Scandinavian sites. Therefore Birka was selected as a testing ground for a pilot study investigating the suitability of thenovelmultichannel GPRarray system MIRA (MAL-Imaging Radar Array) forefficient, large-scale GPR surveyswith very dense spatial sampling. The study was conducted in May 2008 by MAL-Geoscience AB in collaboration with the archaeological prospection unit of the Swedish National Heritage Board. The very high-resolution three-dimensional GPR pilot survey demonstrated that it is possible to survey 1ha and more per day with 8 cm cross-line spacing, mapping archaeological structures in unprecedented resolution, such as postholes of only 25 cm diameter.This paper describes the tested technology and methodology as well as the fieldwork and the results of the study.
The smart specialisation approach is becoming a strategic instrument for identifying regions’ opportunities for growth and sustainable development. It is a place-based approach and plays an important role in benchmarking regional competitiveness. To have a smart specialisation strategy has been thought of as a key factor in making a choice for investment. Smart specialisation strategies represent a policy measure to overcome disorganised and weak parallel activities in developed EU countries and offer support to those areas that have research, technological and production capacity to carry out particular activities. Smart specialisation strategies, therefore, follow the socio-economic situation in countries and their integrated technological, institutional and business processes. The EU Member States and regions recognised that supporting a limited number of well-identified priorities for knowledge-based investments and/or clusters could advance, focusing on competitive assets and realistic growth capabilities reinforced by a critical mass of action and entrepreneurial resources. However, the role of culture and cultural heritage has not been significant in these processes. As the policy review revealed that circular economy should be considered as a broader sustainable development strategy, which should also “support Member States and regions to strengthen innovation for the circular economy through smart specialisations”, the purpose of this paper is to lay a basis for a new, stronger complementarity between culture, cultural heritage and adaptive reuse practices, and circular economy concepts through smart specialisation strategies.
In this paper we highlight the importance of culture, cultural heritage and creative industries (CCI) in current European policies in relation to a number of societal challenges, and how the CCI are called to innovatively respond to such challenges. We distinguish four main societal challenges to which the CCI can strategically respond and significantly unlock the potential for innovation and smart growth in the EU. These societal challenges are addressed by four main pillars of the CCI, namely: (1) Europeans’ creativity, cultural diversity and values; (2) European identity and cohesion; (3) European employment, economic resilience and smart growth; and (4) Europe’s external relations. We address each societal challenge from the CCI perspective, indicating how the CCI can provide innovative responses to such challenges and enable strategic crossovers through networking and collaboration, but also referring to some criticalities. We further discuss how this CCI capacity needs public support and provide an overview of how this is undertaken via the main EU, national and international policies, with a focus on the latest trends.
Results of a comprehensive study on deep drawing are presented. The numerical results are based on finite element procedure developed for simulation of arbitrarily shaped, 3-D forming operations. The elastic-plastic material description with Hill’s anisotropic model is employed allowing for elastic effects, unloading, and multistage processes. By applying a proper computational model of large strain and large rotation plasticity, reliable results were obtained even using relatively simple material and friction laws. Predicted values of the press force, strain distributions, and flange reduction are compared with the corresponding results from axisymmetric deep draw experiments for a wide range of materials used in real forming applications including a deep drawing quality steel, brass, high strength steel, stainless steel, and aluminum. The parametric study shows the sensitivity of the solution on material parameter variations. Presented results can be considered as a set of benchmark problems.
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