Research question Whether SARS-CoV-2 infection has effects on ovarian reserve, sex hormone and menstruation of women of child-bearing age. Design This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Clinical and laboratory data from 237 women of child-bearing age diagnosed with COVID-19 were retrospectively reviewed. Menstrual data from 177 patients were analyzed. Blood samples from the early follicular phase were tested for sex hormones and Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH). Results Among 237 patients confirmed with COVID-19, severely ill patients had more comorbidities than mildly ill patients (34% vs 8%), especially for patients with diabetes, hepatic disease and malignant tumors. Among 177 patients with menstrual records, 45 (25%) patients presented with menstrual volume changes, and 50 (28%) patients had menstrual cycle changes, mainly a decreased volume (21%) and a prolonged cycle (19%). The average sex hormone and AMH levels of women of child-bearing age with COVID-19 were not different from those of age-matched controls. Conclusions Average sex hormone levels and ovarian reserve did not change significantly in COVID-19 women of child-bearing age. Nearly one-fifth of patients exhibited a menstrual volume decrease or cycle prolongation. The menstruation changes of these patients might be the consequence of transient sex hormone change cause by suppression of ovarian function that soon resumed after recovery.
, in Wuhan, China. There are over 1,800,000 confirmed cases worldwide. 1 The pathological process of severe COVID-19 pneumonia is an inflammation reaction characterized by the destruction of the deep airway and alveolar. 2 It is currently considered that lung injury is not only associated with the direct virus-induced damage, but also the immune responses triggered by COVID-19 that lead to the activation of immune cells to release a large number of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Histologic examination has shown diffuse alveolar damage and mucinous exudate, which is similar to acute respiratory distress syndrome. 2 Aggravation of symptoms always occurs during 5-7 days after onset in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and severe cases develop rapidly to acute respiratory failure. 3 Therefore, it is important to strengthen the treatment to suppress the proinflammatory response and control the cytokine storm at this stage. Methylprednisolone are the classical immunosuppressive drugs, which are important to stop or delay the progress of the pneumonia, and have been proved to be effective for the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In a recent study, Wu et al. 4 found the administration of methylprednisolone appeared to reduce the risk of death in COVID-19 pneumonia patients with ARDS, however, of those who received methylprednisolone treatment, 23 of 50 patients died. This is a rather high mortality rate of~50%; therefore, in terms of the indication, timing, dosage and duration, the application of methylprednisolone warrants further investigation. In another study, Zhou et al. 5 endorsed the potential benefits of low-dose corticosteroids treatment in a subset of critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, however, the data was limited to only 15 patients and no control group. Although this is an important issue with regard to the challenges in the treatment of severe COVID-19 pneumonia, the clinical applicability of methylprednisolone needs to be tempered owing to the unanswered questions that remain. To address this issue, we performed a retrospective cohort study comparing the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia patients with or without methylprednisolone treatment. We studied 46 severe patients with COVID-19 pneumonia at the
HBV reactivation occurs earlier and is clinically more significant in CHC patients coinfected with overt and occult HBV who are treated with pan-oral DAAs compared with IFN-based therapy. It is therefore important to have all patients screened for evidence of overt or occult HBV infection and managed during pan-oral DAAs therapy. (Hepatology 2017;66:13-26).
Background: Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is spreading globally. Little is known about the risk factors for the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in children. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was taken in children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronary virus-2 infection in Wuhan Children’s Hospital. Risk factors associated with the development of COVID-19 and progression were collected and analyzed. Results: Eight of 260 children diagnosed with severe COVID-19 pneumonia were included in the study. Thirty-five children with COVID-19 infection matched for age, sex and date of admission, and who classified as non-severe type, were randomly selected from the hospital admissions. For cases with severe pneumonia caused by COVID-19, the most common symptoms were dyspnea (87.5%), fever (62.5%) and cough (62.5%). In laboratory, white blood cells count was significantly higher in severe children than non-severe children. Levels of inflammation bio-makers such as hsCRP, IL-6, IL-10 and D-dimer elevated in severe children compared with non-severe children on admission. The level of total bilirubin and uric acid clearly elevated in severe children compared with non-severe children on admission. All of severe children displayed the lesions on chest CT, more lung segments were involved in severe children than in non-severe children, which was only risk factor associated with severe COVID-19 pneumonia in multivariable analysis. Conclusions: More than 3 lung segments involved were associated with greater risk of development of severe COVID-19 in children. Moreover, the possible risk of the elevation of IL-6, high total bilirubin and D-dimer with univariable analysis could identify patients to be severe earlier.
Summary Although congenital infection by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is well recognized as a leading cause of neurodevelopmental defects, HCMV neuropathogenesis remains poorly understood. A major challenge for investigating HCMV-induced abnormal brain development is the strict CMV species specificity, which prevents the use of animal models to directly study brain defects caused by HCMV. We show that infection of human-induced pluripotent-stem-cell-derived brain organoids by a “clinical-like” HCMV strain results in reduced brain organoid growth, impaired formation of cortical layers, and abnormal calcium signaling and neural network activity. Moreover, we show that the impeded brain organoid development caused by HCMV can be prevented by neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that recognize the HCMV pentamer complex. These results demonstrate in a three-dimensional cellular biosystem that HCMV can impair the development and function of the human brain and provide insights into the potential capacity of NAbs to mitigate brain defects resulted from HCMV infection.
In the treatment of closed tibial plafond fractures, both two-staged ORIF and LIFEF offer similar results. Patients undergo LIFEF carry significantly greater radiation exposure and higher superficial soft tissue infection rate (usually occurs on pin tract and does not affect the final outcomes).
Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the liver function recovery of COVID-19 patients after discharge. Patients and Methods: A total of 253 discharged COVID-19 patients in Shenzhen city, China were selected. The clinical characteristics of these patients were assessed. A 2-month follow-up and laboratory hematology test were performed to examine the status of patients' liver function. Results: Patients combined with liver diseases, especially fatty liver, are more likely to progress to severe condition (P<0.05). Patients in severe condition and those with liver diseases have higher rates of liver injuries during hospitalization, characterized by a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, P<0.01). The ALT, AST/ALT, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), and A/G levels showed significant differences in comparison with the control group (P<0.05, and P<0.001); and the outlier ratio of A/G, ALT, GGT and ALP of patients remained abnormal higher within 14 days after discharge (P<0.001). Liver injuries of COVID-19 patients may be related to the epidemiological characteristics, clinical indexes, basic diseases, symptoms, drug treatment during hospitalization and the complications. Indicators of liver function were correlated with cardiac function, renal function, thyroid function, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, immune index, leukocyte, erythrocyte, hemoglobin and platelet related indexes. The outlier ratio of TP, ALB and GLB remained extremely low throughout the follow-up period; the outlier ratio of ALT, AST and GGT decreased below 10% from a high level at 40 days after discharged. However, the outlier ratio of A/G, AST/ALT and ALP remained high during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Abnormal liver function might indicate worse recovery of COVID-19 patients. Changes in liver function should be emphasized during long-term follow-up of COVID-19 patients after hospital discharge; the necessity of employing appropriate interventions for liver function repair should be emphasized.
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