a b s t r a c tIn recent years, artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been used for forecasting in time series in the literature. Although it is possible to model both linear and nonlinear structures in time series by using ANNs, they are not able to handle both structures equally well. Therefore, the hybrid methodology combining ARIMA and ANN models have been used in the literature. In this study, a new hybrid approach combining Elman's Recurrent Neural Networks (ERNN) and ARIMA models is proposed. The proposed hybrid approach is applied to Canadian Lynx data and it is found that the proposed approach has the best forecasting accuracy.
A general family of estimators, which use the information of two auxiliary variables in the stratified random sampling, is proposed to estimate the population mean of the variable under study. Under stratified random sampling without replacement scheme, the expressions of bias and mean square error (MSE) up to the first-and second-order approximations are derived. The family of estimators in its optimum case is discussed. Also, an empirical study is carried out to show the properties of the proposed estimators.
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