The FLUXNET2015 dataset provides ecosystem-scale data on CO 2 , water, and energy exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere, and other meteorological and biological measurements, from 212 sites around the globe (over 1500 site-years, up to and including year 2014). These sites, independently managed and operated, voluntarily contributed their data to create global datasets. Data were quality controlled and processed using uniform methods, to improve consistency and intercomparability across sites. The dataset is already being used in a number of applications, including ecophysiology studies, remote sensing studies, and development of ecosystem and Earth system models. FLUXNET2015 includes derived-data products, such as gap-filled time series, ecosystem respiration and photosynthetic uptake estimates, estimation of uncertainties, and metadata about the measurements, presented for the first time in this paper. In addition, 206 of these sites are for the first time distributed under a Creative Commons (CC-BY 4.0) license. This paper details this enhanced dataset and the processing methods, now made available as open-source codes, making the dataset more accessible, transparent, and reproducible.
In response to the growing interest in estimating carbon stocks in forests, available allometric equations have been compiled for sub-Saharan Africa. Tree, sprout and stand volume and biomass equations were reviewed. The 850 equations and 125 related references were incorporated into an open-access database on the Carboafrica website (http://www.carboafrica. net). The collected information provides a basic tool for the estimation of biomass and carbon stocks and other purposes, such as bioenergy and fodder supply assessment. A Tier-method approach was developed to illustrate the possible use of the equations. Current available biomass expansion factors that are used to convert a volume to the total aboveground biomass appear to be limited; incomplete species-specific allometric equations are preferred to generalised equations. The analysis of the database highlighted important gaps in available tools to assess forest carbon stocks and changes in these stocks. A quality control assessment revealed that 22% of the equations were misreported and recommendations were proposed to guide further research. Further statistical analyses, such as the Bayesian approach, would help to produce more accurate biomass estimates.
FLUXNET15, the latest update of the longest global record of ecosystem carbon, water, and energy fluxes, features improved data quality, new data products, and more open data sharing policies.
Abstract. This study evaluates the performances of the new version (v.5.1) of 3D-CMCC Forest Ecosystem Model (FEM) in simulating gross primary productivity (GPP), against eddy covariance GPP data for 10 FLUXNET forest sites across Europe. A new carbon allocation module, coupled with new both phenological and autotrophic respiration schemes, was implemented in this new daily version. Model ability in reproducing timing and magnitude of daily and monthly GPP fluctuations is validated at intra-annual and inter-annual scale, including extreme anomalous seasons. With the purpose to test the 3D-CMCC FEM applicability over Europe without a site-related calibration, the model has been deliberately parametrized with a single set of species-specific parametrizations for each forest ecosystem. The model consistently reproduces both in timing and in magnitude daily and monthly GPP variability across all sites, with the exception of the two Mediterranean sites. We find that 3D-CMCC FEM tends to better simulate the timing of inter-annual anomalies than their magnitude within measurements' uncertainty. In six of eight sites where data are available, the model well reproduces the 2003 summer drought event. Finally, for three sites we evaluate whether a more accurate representation of forest structural characteristics (i.e. cohorts, forest layers) and species composition can improve model results. In two of the three sites results reveal that model slightly increases its performances although, statistically speaking, not in a relevant way.
GlobAllomeTree is an international platform for tree allometric equations. It is the first worldwide web platform designed to facilitate the access of the tree allometric equation and to facilitate the assessment of the tree biometric characteristics for commercial volume, bio-energy or carbon cycling. The webplatform presents a database containing tree allometric equations, a software called Fantallomatrik, to facilitate the comparison and selection of the equations, and documentation to facilitate the development of new tree allometric models, improve the evaluation of tree and forest resources and improve knowledge on tree allometric equations. In the Fantallometrik software, equations can be selected by country, ecological zones, input parameters, tree species, statistic parameters and outputs. The continuously updated database currently contains over 5000 tree allometric equations classified according to 73 fields. The software Fantallometrik can be also used to compare equations, insert new data and estimate the selected output variables using field inventory. The GlobAllomeTree products are freely available at the URL: http://globallometree.org for a range of users including foresters, project developers, scientist, student and government staff
Forest carbon use efficiency (CUE, the ratio of net to gross primary productivity) represents the fraction of photosynthesis that is not used for plant respiration. Although important, it is often neglected in climate change impact analyses. Here we assess the potential impact of thinning on projected carbon cycle dynamics and implications for forest CUE and its components (i.e., gross and net primary productivity and plant respiration), as well as on forest biomass production. Using a detailed process‐based forest ecosystem model forced by climate outputs of five Earth System Models under four representative climate scenarios, we investigate the sensitivity of the projected future changes in the autotrophic carbon budget of three representative European forests. We focus on changes in CUE and carbon stocks as a result of warming, rising atmospheric CO 2 concentration, and forest thinning. Results show that autotrophic carbon sequestration decreases with forest development, and the decrease is faster with warming and in unthinned forests. This suggests that the combined impacts of climate change and changing CO 2 concentrations lead the forests to grow faster, mature earlier, and also die younger. In addition, we show that under future climate conditions, forest thinning could mitigate the decrease in CUE, increase carbon allocation into more recalcitrant woody pools, and reduce physiological‐climate‐induced mortality risks. Altogether, our results show that thinning can improve the efficacy of forest‐based mitigation strategies and should be carefully considered within a portfolio of mitigation options.
This paper describes the formation of, and initial results for, a new FLUXNET coordination network for ecosystem-scale methane (CH4) measurements at 60 sites globally, organized by the Global Carbon Project in partnership with other initiatives and regional flux tower networks. The objectives of the effort are presented along with an overview of the coverage of eddy covariance (EC) CH4 flux measurements globally, initial results comparing CH4 fluxes across the sites, and future research directions and needs. Annual estimates of net CH4 fluxes across sites ranged from −0.2 ± 0.02 g C m–2 yr–1 for an upland forest site to 114.9 ± 13.4 g C m–2 yr–1 for an estuarine freshwater marsh, with fluxes exceeding 40 g C m–2 yr–1 at multiple sites. Average annual soil and air temperatures were found to be the strongest predictor of annual CH4 flux across wetland sites globally. Water table position was positively correlated with annual CH4 emissions, although only for wetland sites that were not consistently inundated throughout the year. The ratio of annual CH4 fluxes to ecosystem respiration increased significantly with mean site temperature. Uncertainties in annual CH4 estimates due to gap-filling and random errors were on average ±1.6 g C m–2 yr–1 at 95% confidence, with the relative error decreasing exponentially with increasing flux magnitude across sites. Through the analysis and synthesis of a growing EC CH4 flux database, the controls on ecosystem CH4 fluxes can be better understood, used to inform and validate Earth system models, and reconcile differences between land surface model- and atmospheric-based estimates of CH4 emissions.
A prospective randomized controlled study was designed to evaluate the effects of recombinant human folliclestimulating hormone (rFSH) treatment on sperm DNA fragmentation in men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (iOAT). One hundred twenty-nine men with sperm count less than 10 6 10 6 spermatozoa/mL and forward motility ,25% were included; normal serum levels of FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone, and no other causes of infertility were enrolled. The patients were randomized into 2 groups: 65 men were treated on alternate days for 90 days with injections of 150 IU rFSH, and 64 subjects received nonantioxidant vitamin supplements. Main outcome measures were serum levels of FSH, LH, testosterone, and inhibin B and DNA fragmentation index (DFI) at baseline and after 90 days. No significant differences were observed between the 2 groups with regard to sperm parameters and hormone values. The DFI was similar between the 2 groups at the time of the enrollment but reduced significantly (P , .05) after rFSH therapy in study group, whereas no significant variation occurred in the control group. In the subgroup of patients with high basal DFI values (.15%), rFSH treatment significantly increased DFI (P , .01), whereas no significant variation occurred after 90 days of vitamin supplements. We conclude that rFSH administration improves sperm DNA integrity in iOAT men with increased DFI values. The degree of sperm DFI might be useful to identify those iOAT patients in which rFSH treatment can be advantageous.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.