ObjectiveTo assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Dutch children and adolescents, to examine the 30-years trend, and to create new body mass index reference charts.DesignNationwide cross-sectional data collection by trained health care professionals.Participants: 10,129 children of Dutch origin aged 0–21 years.Main Outcome MeasuresOverweight (including obesity) and obesity prevalences for Dutch children, defined by the cut-off values on body mass index references according to the International Obesity Task Force.ResultsIn 2009, 12.8% of the Dutch boys and 14.8% of the Dutch girls aged 2–21 years were overweight and 1.8% of the boys and 2.2% of the girls were classified as obese. This is a two to three fold higher prevalence in overweight and four to six fold increase in obesity since 1980. Since 1997, a substantial rise took place, especially in obesity, which increased 1.4 times in girls and doubled in boys. There was no increase in mean BMI SDS in the major cities since 1997.ConclusionsOverweight and obesity prevalences in 2009 were substantially higher than in 1980 and 1997. However, the overweight prevalence stabilized in the major cities. This might be an indication that the rising trend in overweight in the Netherlands is starting to turn.
Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a practical method to estimate percentage body fat (%BF). In this systematic review, we aimed to assess validity, responsiveness, reliability and measurement error of BIA methods in estimating %BF in children and adolescents.We searched for relevant studies in Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane through November 2012. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts for inclusion, extracted data and rated methodological quality of the included studies. We performed a best evidence synthesis to synthesize the results, thereby excluding studies of poor quality. We included 50 published studies. Mean differences between BIA and reference methods (gold standard [criterion validity] and convergent measures of body composition [convergent validity]) were considerable and ranged from negative to positive values, resulting in conflicting evidence for criterion validity. We found strong evidence for a good reliability, i.e. (intra-class) correlations ≥0.82. However, test-retest mean differences ranged from 7.5% to 13.4% of total %BF in the included study samples, indicating considerable measurement error. Our systematic review suggests that BIA is a practical method to estimate %BF in children and adolescents. However, validity and measurement error are not satisfactory.
Abstract. Since traffic jams are ubiquitous in the modern world, optimizing the behavior of traffic lights for efficient traffic flow is a critically important goal. Though most current traffic lights use simple heuristic protocols, more efficient controllers can be discovered automatically via multiagent reinforcement learning, where each agent controls a single traffic light. However, in previous work on this approach, agents select only locally optimal actions without coordinating their behavior. This paper extends this approach to include explicit coordination between neighboring traffic lights. Coordination is achieved using the max-plus algorithm, which estimates the optimal joint action by sending locally optimized messages among connected agents. This paper presents the first application of max-plus to a large-scale problem and thus verifies its efficacy in realistic settings. It also provides empirical evidence that max-plus performs well on cyclic graphs, though it has been proven to converge only for tree-structured graphs. Furthermore, it provides a new understanding of the properties a traffic network must have for such coordination to be beneficial and shows that max-plus outperforms previous methods on networks that possess those properties.
AimTo assess and compare the secular trend in age at menarche in Dutch girls (1955–2009) and girls from Turkish and Moroccan descent living in the Netherlands (1997–2009).MethodsData on growth and maturation were collected in 20,867 children of Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan descent in 2009 by trained health care professionals. Girls, 9 years and older, of Dutch (n = 2138), Turkish (n = 282), and Moroccan (n = 295) descent were asked whether they had experienced their first period. We compared median menarcheal age in 2009 with data from the previous Dutch Nationwide Growth Studies in 1955, 1965, 1980 and 1997. Age specific body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated to assess differences in BMI between pre- and postmenarcheal girls in different age groups.ResultsMedian age at menarche in Dutch girls, decreased significantly from 13.66 years in 1955 to 13.15 years in 1997 and 13.05 years in 2009. Compared to Dutch girls there is a larger decrease in median age of menarche in girls of Turkish and Moroccan descent between 1997 and 2009. In Turkish girls age at menarche decreased from 12.80 to 12.50 years and in Moroccan girls from 12.90 to 12.60 years. Thirty-three percent of Turkish girls younger than 12 years start menstruating in primary school. BMI-SDS is significantly higher in postmenarcheal girls than in premenarcheal girls irrespective of age.ConclusionThere is a continuing secular trend in earlier age at menarche in Dutch girls. An even faster decrease in age at menarche is observed in girls of Turkish and Moroccan descent in the Netherlands.
Our study in children with PWS shows that 4 yr of continuous GH treatment (1 mg/m(2) . d) improves body composition by decreasing fat%SDS and stabilizing LBMSDS and head circumference SDS and normalizes heightSDS without adverse effects. Thus, long-term continuous GH treatment is an effective and safe therapy for children with PWS.
Careful monitoring of both gonadal function and growth after bone marrow transplantation and total body irradiation is warranted in order to detect disturbances early and ensure normal pubertal development in children treated for haematological malignancies.
Presented is a cohort study to assess the nature and frequency of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) mutations in 45 patients (35 families) with congenital hypothyroidism due to a total iodide organification defect; incidence is 1:66,000 in The Netherlands. The presentation is consistently similar with a severe form of congenital hypothyroidism and also characterized by a complete and immediate release of accumulated radioiodide from the thyroid after sodium perchlorate administration. Sixteen different mutations were found, including eight novel mutations; the majority occurs in exons 8, 9, or 10. The GGCC insertion in exon 8 at nucleotide 1277, leading to an early termination signal in exon 9, is the most frequently occurring mutation. These mutations were detected in 29 families in both TPO alleles (13 homozygous and 16 compound heterozygous). In one family, partial maternal isodisomy of 2p was detected, in four families only one mutated TPO allele could be detected, and in one family no inactivating TPO mutation could be found. Because all patients clearly had the clinicopathologic features of a total iodide organification defect, we conclude that in these five families the mutations in the (other) alleles could be either located in the intronic sequences or in the promoter region. Mutations in the TPO gene result in total iodide organification defects.
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