HL156A is a novel AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator. We aimed to investigate the protective mechanism of HL156A against peritoneal fibrosis (PF) in in vivo and in vitro models. The rat PF model was induced by daily intraperitoneally injection of chlorhexidine (CHX) solution containing 0.1% CHX gluconate and 15% ethanol for 4 wk. The rats in the treatment group were treated with HL156A (1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)). Control rats were injected with vehicle alone. In vitro, cultured rat peritoneal mesothelial cells (RPMCs) were treated with either high glucose (HG; 50 mM), normal glucose (NG; 5 mM), NG+HL156A, or HG+HL156A. HL156A in supplemented rats ameliorated peritoneal calcification, cocoon formation, bowel obstruction, and PF. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced fibronectin accumulation in the peritoneum of HL156A-treated rats compared with those injected with CHX alone. HL156A treatment of RPMCs inhibited HG-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation and markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, HL156A ameliorated HG-induced transforming growth factor-β1, Smad3, Snail, and fibronectin expression in the RPMCs via AMPK upregulation. These results suggest that HL156A exhibits a protective effect in PF progression. Further research is warranted to seek the therapeutic potential of HL156A as an antifibrotic agent in peritoneal dialysis patients.
BackgroundRenal fibrosis is characterized by excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), which leads to progressive renal failure. Adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a highly conserved kinase that plays a key role in Smad-3 signaling. Here, we examined the effect of a novel AMPK activator, HL156A, on the inhibition of renal fibrosis in in vivo and in vitro models.MethodsUnilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was induced in male Wistar rats. Rats with UUO were administered HL156A (20mg/kg/day), and then the kidneys were harvested 10 days after ligation for further analysis.ResultsIn the rat UUO model, HL156A attenuated ECM protein deposition. After HL156A treatment, expressions of TGF-β1, p-Smad3, α-SMA, fibronectin, and type IV collagen were suppressed, and E-cadherin expression was up-regulated. In the in vitro experiment, NRK52E cells were treated with HL156A before TGF-β1 stimulation. The inhibitory effects of HL156A upon the signaling pathways and markers of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were analyzed. In TGF-β1-treated NRK-52E cells, HL156A co-treatment inhibited the TGF-β1-induced Smad3 signaling pathway and EMT markers.ConclusionTaken together, the above findings suggest that HL156A, a novel AMPK activator, ameliorates renal fibrosis in vivo and in vitro.
Peritoneal fibrosis (PF) is an intractable complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) that leads to peritoneal membrane failure. This study investigated the role of suppression of tumorigenicity (ST)2 in PF using patient samples along with mouse and cell‐based models. Baseline dialysate soluble (s)ST2 level in patients measured 1 month after PD initiation was 2063.4 ± 2457.8 pg/mL; patients who switched to haemodialysis had elevated sST2 levels in peritoneal effluent (1576.2 ± 199.9 pg/mL, P = .03), which was associated with PD failure (P = .04). Baseline sST2 showed good performance in predicting PD failure (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.780, P = .001). In mice with chlorhexidine gluconate‐induced PF, ST2 was expressed in fibroblasts and mesothelial cells within submesothelial zones. In primary cultured human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs), transforming growth factor‐β treatment increased ST2, fibronectin, β‐galactosidase and Snail protein levels and decreased E‐cadherin level. Anti‐ST2 antibody administration reversed the up‐regulation of ST2 and fibronectin expression; it also reduced fibrosis induced by high glucose (100 mmol/L) in HPMCs. Thus, high ST2 level in dialysate is a marker for fibrosis and inflammation during peritoneal injury, and blocking ST2 may be an effective therapeutic strategy for renal preservation.
Hypercalciuria is one of early manifestations of diabetic nephropathy (DN). This is partially due to a decrease in the expression of renal transient receptor potential vanilloid type 5 (TRPV5), which is responsible for renal calcium reabsorption. Soluble klotho was previously determined to increase TRPV5 by cleaving sialic acid, causing TRPV5 to bind to membrane protein galectin-1. However, a recent study showed that soluble klotho binds to α2-3-sialyllactose - where sialic acid is located - on TRPV5, rather than cleave it. Here, we report that soluble klotho tethers TRPV5 on the membrane by binding both TRPV5 and galectin-1, thereby protecting membrane TRPV5 from diabetes-induced endocytosis. We injected recombinant soluble α-klotho protein (rKL) into db/db and db/m mice for 8 weeks and collected urine and the kidney. We administered rKL, AZD4547 (FGFR1 inhibitor), and OTX008 (Galectin 1 inhibitor) to cultured mouse distal tubular cells, with or without 30 mM high glucose (HG) exposure. db/db mice showed increased renal calcium excretion and decreased renal TRPV5 expression. rKL treatment reversed this change. In vitro, TRPV5 expression in distal tubular cells decreased under HG conditions, and rKL successfully upregulated TRPV5 with or without FGF23. Also, immunofluorescence showed co-localization of klotho, TRPV5, and galectin-1 in distal tubule cells, suggesting that klotho binds to both TRPV5 and galectin 1. Moreover, when both FGFR1 and galectin-1 were inhibited, rKL failed to increase TRPV5 under HG conditions. Our results indicate that soluble klotho prevents TRPV5 from degradation and subsequent diabetes-induced endocytosis by anchoring TRPV5 through binding with both TRPV5 and galectin-1.
Aging is a universal, irreversible process accompanied by physiological declines that culminate in death. Rapid progress in gerontology research has revealed that aging can be slowed through mild stress-induced hormesis. We previously reported that hyperbaric normoxia (HN, 2 atm absolute pressure with 10% O2) induces a cytoprotective response in vitro by regulating fibronectin. In the present study, we investigated the hormetic effects of prenatal HN exposure on Drosophila healthspan related to molecular defense mechanisms. HN exposure had no disruptive effect on developmental rate or adult body weight. However, lifespan was clearly enhanced, as was resistance to oxidative and heat stress. In addition, levels of reactive oxygen species were significantly decreased and motor performance was increased. HN stress has been shown to trigger molecular changes in the heat shock response and ROS scavenging system, including hsp70, catalase, glutathione synthase, and MnSOD. Furthermore, to determine the hormetic mechanism underlying these phenotypic and molecular changes, we performed a genome-wide profiling in HN-exposed and control flies. Genes encoding chitin metabolism were highly up-regulated, which could possibly serve to scavenge free radicals. These results identify prenatal HN exposure as a potential hormetic factor that may improve longevity and healthspan by enhancing defense mechanisms in Drosophila.
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