Tapeworms of the genus Wenyonia Woodland, 1923 (Caryophyllidea: Caryophyllaeidae), parasites of catfishes in Africa, are revised. This revision is based on material from large-scale sampling, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Senegal and the Sudan between 2006 and 2009, and the examination of all of the type-specimens available. The following six species are considered valid and their redescriptions are provided: Wenyonia virilis Woodland, 1923 (type-species; new synonym W. kainjii Ukoli, 1972); W. acuminata Woodland, 1923; W. longicauda Woodland, 1937; W. minuta Woodland, 1923 (new synonym W. mcconnelli Ukoli, 1972); W. synodontis Ukoli, 1972; and W. youdeoweii Ukoli, 1972. A key to the identification of Wenyonia spp. is provided and numerous new hosts and geographical records are reported. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene of four species divided the monophyletic genus into two lineages, one represented by W. acuminata and W. minuta and another one composed of W. virilis and W. youdeoweii.
A new species of trypanorhynch cestode is described from two species of stingrays, the Panamic stingray Urotrygon aspidura (Jordan & Gilbert) and the Pacific chupare Himantura pacifica (Beebe & Tee-Van) collected in the Golfo de Montijo in the Eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of Panama. Shirleyrhynchus panamensis n. sp. represents an important addition to the family, which until now consisted of two monotypic genera. The new species is characterised by an elongate scolex with four, ovate bothria, presence of prebulbar organs, absence of gland cells within the muscular bulbs and an oncotaxy with a typical heteroacanthous, heteromorphous tentacular armature, a characteristic basal armature and the presence of a slight basal swelling. It is readily distinguished from its congeners by a smaller scolex and features of the oncotaxy, such as dissimilar hooks on opposing principle rows, a commencement of hook rows from the bothrial to the antibothrial surface and a much shorter basal armature. Although described only on the basis of immature worms lacking a strobila, the new species adds information on features of the oncotaxy within Shirleyrhynchus Beveridge & Campbell, 1988. Observation of the holotype of Shirleyrhynchus aetobatidis (Shipley & Hornell, 1906) revealed apparent differences from Australian specimens that have been described as Shirleyrhynchus butlerae Beveridge & Campbell, 1988 but which were later synonymised. Observations of type-specimens of S. butlerae also revealed differences from the original description and some morphological characteristics are amended. Shirleyrhynchus butlerae is herein resurrected and an amended generic diagnosis and a key to the identification of species are provided. The molecular voucher specimen of 'S. aetobatidis' utilised in previous molecular phylogenetic studies was re-observed which revealed a misidentification of the specimen with Parachristianella indonesiensis Palm, 2004.
Sampling of a large number of elasmobranchs from coastal waters off Borneo revealed the presence of five new species of Dollfusiella Campbell & Beveridge, 1994 (Trypanorhyncha: Eutetrarhynchidae), namely D. angustiformis n. sp., D. hemispinosa n. sp., D. spinosa n. sp., D. imparispinis n. sp. and D. parva n. sp. Dollfusiella angustiformis n. sp. is described from the spiral intestines of four species of the dasyatid stingray genus Himantura Müller & Henle from both the Indonesian and Malaysian parts of Borneo. All the other species were obtained from Malaysian Borneo. Dollfusiella hemispinosa n. sp. is described from the spiral intestines of three species of Himantura, whereas D. spinosa n. sp. was obtained from several specimens of Pastinachus solocirostris Last, Manjaji & Yearsley (Dasyatidae) as well as from Taeniura lymma 1 (sensu Naylor et al., 2012) (Dasyatidae), Neotrygon kuhlii 2 (sensu Naylor et al., 2012) (Dasyatidae), and Glaucostegus cf. typus (sensu Naylor et al., 2012) (Rhinobatidae). Dollfusiella imparispinis n. sp. is described from the spiral intestine of a single specimen of Chiloscyllium punctatum Müller & Henle (Hemiscyllidae) from the South China Sea off Sarawak, whereas D. parva n. sp. was obtained from several species of Himantura. Specimens of the five novel taxa possess scoleces covered with enlarged microtriches, a morphological characteristic exhibited by several other congeners. However, the new species differ from all congeners by possessing unique patterns of oncotaxy as well as combinations of additional morphological features. The number of valid species within Dollfusiella is increased to 26. For this reason, a key for the species of Dollfusiella is provided. Furthermore, novel information on hosts and geographic distribution is provided for two previously described species of Dollfusiella, D. michiae (Southwell, 1929) and D. spinulifera (Beveridge & Jones, 2000). The latter species differs slightly from the original description and shows a much higher variability with regard to the lengths of the scolex and muscular bulbs and the number of testes. These variable characters subdivided specimens of D. spinulifera into relatively distinct groups. However, the specimens did not differ in their oncotaxy and are considered to represent a single variable species.
Prochristianella cairae n. sp. is described from the spiral intestines of two species of bamboo sharks, Chiloscylliumpunctatum Müller & Henle and Chiloscyllium indicum (Gmelin) (Hemiscyllidae) off the coast of Malaysian Borneo. Thespecies is distinguished from congeners by enlarged microtriches covering the whole scolex peduncle, a uniquearrangement of hooks on the basal swelling, a dissimilar number of hooks in each principle row in the metabasal armatureand hook files 1 and 1’ not being distinctly separated. Prochristianella jensenae n. sp. is described from the spiralintestines of three species of whiptail stingrays, Pastinachus solocirostris Last & Manjaji-Matsumoto, Pastinachus atrus(Macleay) and Pastinachus gracilicaudus Last & Manjaji-Matsumoto (Dasyatidae) from coastal waters off Indonesianand Malaysian Borneo and Western Australia, from Himantura uarnak (Gmelin) (Dasyatidae) off Nickol Bay, WesternAustralia and from Rhinoptera neglecta Ogilby (Myliobatidae) off Weipa, Queensland, Australia. This species lacksgland-cells within the tentacular bulbs, one of the most distinctive features of this family. Prochristianella kostadinovaen. sp. is described from the spiral intestines of Himantura uarnak 2 (Dasyatidae) (sensu Naylor et al. 2012) from the Gulfof Carpenteria. It differs from congeners in its metrical data, a metabasal tentacular armature with 10 hooks per principlerow, hooks 1(1’) being uncinate with an elongate base and widely spaced and hooks 4(4’) smaller than neighbouring hooks3(3’) and 5(5’). Prochristianella scholzi n. sp. is described from specimens of the Taeniura lymma species complex(Dasyatidae) (sensu Naylor et al. 2012) from three localities in Malaysian and Indonesian Borneo. This species has arraysof billhooks on the basal swelling, but differs from similar congeners in having very few, tiny gland-cells within thetentacular bulbs and a metabasal tentacular armature with 9–10 hooks per half spiral row and hooks 4(4’) being muchsmaller than the neighbouring hooks 3(3’) and 5(5’). Examinations of new material from northern Australia andIndonesian and Malaysian Borneo provided additional information on Prochristianella aciculata Beveridge & Justine,2010, Prochristianella butlerae Beveridge, 1990 and Prochristianella clarkeae Beveridge, 1990. In total, 17, 7 and 29(respectively) new host records and 14, 9 and 28 (respectively) new locality records are added. These records extend thegeographical range of all three species in the Australasian region and also represents the first record of P. aciculata fromAustralian waters and the first record of P. butlerae from the Indo-Malayan region. Prochristianella clarkeae is the least host specific taxon within Prochristianella, infecting 43 different host species.
Borneo is considered a centre for biodiversity in both the terrestrial and aquatic environments. However, information on the diversity of parasites and trypanorhynch cestodes infecting sharks and rays in particular is rather limited at present. During a large-scale study focusing on the parasite diversity of elasmobranchs from Malaysian and Indonesian Borneo a total of 520 spiral intestines of elasmobranchs were collected during seven years of extensive sampling. Trypanorhynch cestodes were discovered in 163 specimens belonging to 43 different elasmobranch species (i.e. 17 species of sharks and 26 species of rays). Overall, 50 species of trypanorhynchs were recovered from the hosts' spiral intestines, some of which represented new species and genera that have been subsequently described. Numerous new host records are added for previously described species. Of the 50 trypanorhynch species present in waters off Borneo 30 (= 60%) were recovered from rays, while 20 species (= 40%) were found in sharks. The geographical distribution of these cestode species was dominated by taxa that occur in the Indo-west Pacific (= 30%) followed by species endemic to Borneo (= 28%). Nine species (= 18%) are found both in Borneo and Australia or have a cosmopolitan distribution. The present study also assessed the host specificity for 16 species belonging to three prominent trypanorhynch genera recovered from elasmobranchs from Borneo (i.e. Dollfusiella Campbell & Beveridge, 1994, Prochristianella Dollfus, 1946 and Parachristianella Dollfus, 1946). Most species (= 63%) were euryxenous utilizing hosts from different orders or even classes, with only a single species (i.e. Dollfusiella imparispinis Schaeffner & Beveridge, 2013) being oioxenous utilizing a single host species. The remaining species (= 31%) were mesostenoxenous utilizing different host species from a single genus. The least host specific taxa were the three representatives of Parachristianella and Prochristianella clarkeae Beveridge, 1990.
A new genus of trypanorhynch cestode is described from two species of sharks, the sliteye shark Loxodon macrorhinus Müller & Henle and the straight-tooth weasel shark Paragaleus tengi (Chen) collected in the Makassar Strait (off Indonesian Borneo) and Sulu Sea (off Malaysian Borneo). Ancipirhynchus afossalis n. g., n. sp. possesses two bothria and a heteroacanthous, heteromorphous tentacular armature with three distinctive files of hooks on the external tentacle surface but lacks prebulbar organs and gland cells within the tentacular bulbs. The hook arrangement of alternating files on the external surface of the tentacle resembles that seen in the superfamily Otobothrioidea Dollfus, 1942 in the genus Fossobothrium Beveridge & Campbell, 2005. However, the new species lacks the defining characteristic of this group, i.e. the paired bothrial pits. A Bayesian inference (BI) analysis of 37 LSU sequences of trypanorhynchs from three superfamilies provided evidence supporting the taxonomic placement of Ancipirhynchus afossalis n. g., n. sp. within the Otobothrioidea.
Southern Africa is considered one of the world's 'hotspots' for the diversity of cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes), with currently 204 reported species. Although numerous literature records and treatises on chondrichthyan fishes are available, a paucity of information exists on the biodiversity of their parasites. Chondrichthyan fishes are parasitised by several groups of protozoan and metazoan organisms that live either permanently or temporarily on and within their hosts. Reports of parasites infecting elasmobranchs and holocephalans in South Africa are sparse and information on most parasitic groups is fragmentary or entirely lacking. Parasitic copepods constitute the best-studied group with currently 70 described species (excluding undescribed species or nomina nuda) from chondrichthyans. Given the large number of chondrichthyan species present in southern Africa, it is expected that only a mere fraction of the parasite diversity has been discovered to date and numerous species await discovery and description. This review summarises information on all groups of parasites of chondrichthyan hosts and demonstrates the current knowledge of chondrichthyan parasites in South Africa. Checklists are provided displaying the host-parasite and parasite-host data known to date.
The genus Eutetrarhynchus Pintner, 1913 is revised. Eutetrarhynchus beveridgei n. sp. is described from the spiral intestine of the dwarf whipray, Himantura walga (Müller & Henle) (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae), from the South China Sea off the Malaysian part of Borneo. The new species is characterised by a slender, elongate scolex, two oval bothria, muscular bulbs, retractor muscles inserting at the base of the bulbs, and the presence of gland-cells and prebulbar organs. The tentacular armature is typical heteroacanthous with heteromorphous hooks. Eutetrarhynchus beveridgei n. sp. is allocated to the genus due to its distinct segment morphology featuring two internal seminal vesicles and scattered testes occupying the complete intervascular space. It differs from congeners in its relatively small size, much smaller scolex regions and in the presence of a basal armature with a distinct basal swelling. Eutetrarhynchus cortezensis Friggens & Duszynski, 2005 is transferred to Dollfusiella Campbell & Beveridge, 1994, as D. cortezensis n. comb., on the basis of its segment morphology, with testes in a linear arrangement and the absence of internal seminal vesicles. A new generic diagnosis and a key for the identification of species of Eutetrarhynchus is provided.
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