Moluska adalah salah satu bioindikator pencemaran lingkungan yang sebagian besar spesiesnya di Indonesia belum banyak diungkap sehingga menarik untuk dipelajari lebih dalam. Moluska dapat ditemukan di perairan laut dan tawar di Pantai Carita, Pandeglang. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari struktur komunitas Moluska di perairan laut dan tawar serta penentuan kualitas perairan. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kawasan Hutan dengan Tujuan Khusus (KHDTK), Kecamatan Carita, Kabupaten Pandeglang, Banten. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah kuantitatif deskriptif. Sampel Moluska dikumpulkan dari tiga kuadran dengan masing-masing ukuran 1 × 1 m 2 berdasarkan garis transek. Identifikasi dan analisis data dilakukan berdasarkan kelimpahan, indeks keanekaragaman dan dominansi. Sampel yang teridentifikasi didominasi oleh Gastropoda dibandingkan Bivalvia. Indeks keanekaragaman Moluska di perairan laut adalah 0,37, 0,36, dan 0,32, sementara di perairan tawar adalah 0.36, 0.36, dan 0.37. Indeks dominansi Moluska di perairan tawar adalah 0.12, 0.21, dan 0.04 sedangkan di perairan tawar adalah 0.08, 0.10, dan 0.17. Spesies melimpah di perairan laut adalah Laevipilina cachuchensis, Rhinoclavis vergatus, Mactra grandis, Trachycardium subrugosum, dan Morula margariticola sedangkan spesies dominan di perairan tawar adalah Thiara Scabra. Kualitas dari perairan tawar maupun laut termasuk kategori baik untuk mendukung kehidupan Moluska.
This study aims to develop Circulamodo learning media in increasing the active potential of students. The research method used is the ADDIE development method through analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation stages. The results showed that 1) the average score of Circulamodo's media assessment was 77.4% and had good qualifications; 2) the active potential of students is 76% and is categorized as very good; 3) students' cognitive learning outcomes increased by 39.8%. In conclusion, the development of Circulamodo media is proven to increase student activity potential. Keywords: ADDIE, Cognitive Learning Outcomes, Circulamodo Media, Activity Potential
Biology teacher needs to have motivation in delivering learning material related to school leadership and self-efficacy. That is why the objective of this research is to analyze the relationship between school leadership, self-efficacy, and motivation of Biology teachers. A survey used by selecting 91 Biology teachers at Jakarta City by using Simple Random Sampling (SRS). There were three instruments developed to measure school leadership (79 items) with reliability of 0.880, self-efficacy (15 items) with reliability 0.984, and motivation (22 items) with reliability 0.885. Data were analyzed by regression-correlation analysis. The result showed that school leadership and self-efficacy has a positive and significant correlation with motivation. These findings mean when motivation would be improved, factors such as school leadership and self-efficacy could be taken into account.
Halitosis is associated with the excessive production of acid and volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs), as well as accumulation of biofilm plaque by oral bacteria in mouth cavity. Zanthoxylum acanthopodium, locally known as andaliman or lemon pepper, is an Indonesian endemic spice with high content of essential oils, including carveol that has been reported for its potential antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. We determined whether extract of Z. acanthopodium essential oil (ZAEO) exerted anti-halitosis effect on reducing biofilm plaque, acid production, and VSCs by using Actinomyces viscosus model in vitro. ZAEO was extracted in n-hexane followed by evaporation. ZAEO at various doses (20-100 µg/ml) was tested and quantified for its antibiofilm, acid production, and total VSCs production toward A. viscosus oral bacteria in vitro by conducting biofilm assays for preventing and eradicating effects, pH-stat analysis, and VSCs assay. At lowest dose (20 µg/ml), ZAEO inhibited and removed >50% of A. viscosus biofilms. A. viscosus was able to produce acid rapidly in 20 minutes, resulting in the pH terminal of 5.57, and ZAEO treatment at 40 µg/ml exerted significant inhibition on acid production with the terminal pH of 5.93, respectively. ZAEO at lowest dose also reduced >50% of total VCSs produced by A. viscosus. Our results suggest that ZAEO extract could be applied as a natural ingredient for halitosis treatment.
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