The American Society of Anesthesiologists; All India Difficult Airway Association; European Airway Management Society; European Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care; Italian Society of Anesthesiology, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care, Learning, Teaching and Investigation Difficult Airway Group; Society for Airway Management; Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia; Society for Head and Neck Anesthesia; Society for Pediatric Anesthesia; Society of Critical Care Anesthesiologists; and the Trauma Anesthesiology Society present an updated report of the Practice Guidelines for Management of the Difficult Airway.
The rapid detection and evaluation of patients presenting with perioperative neurological dysfunction is of great clinical relevance. Biomarkers have been defined as biological molecules that can be used as an indicator of new onset or progression of a biological process or effect of treatment. Biomarkers have become increasingly important in this setting to supplement other modalities of diagnosis such as EEG, sensory- or motor-evoked potential, transcranial Doppler, near-infrared spectroscopy, or imaging methods. A number of neuro-proteins have been identified and are currently under investigation for potential to provide insights into injury severity, outcome, and the ability to monitor cellular damage and molecular events that occur during neurological injury. S100B is a protein released by glial cells and is considered a marker of blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Clinical studies in patients undergoing cardiac and non-cardiac surgery indicate that serum levels of S100B are increased intraoperatively and after operation. The neurone-specific enolase has also been extensively investigated as a potential marker of neuronal injury in the context of cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. A third biomarker of interest is the Tau protein, which has been linked to neurodegenerative disorders. Tau appears to be more specific than the previous two biomarkers since it is only found in the central nervous system. The metalloproteinase and ubiquitin C terminal hydroxylase-L1 (UCH-L1) are the most recently researched markers; however, their usefulness is still unclear. This review presents a comprehensive overview of S100B, neuronal-specific enolase, metalloproteinases, and UCH-L1 in the perioperative period.
The in-hospital cardiac mortality rate is high for patients who undergo vascular surgery and experience clinically significant PMI. Stress of surgery (increased intraoperative bleeding and aortic, peripheral vascular, and emergency surgery), poor preoperative cardiac functional status (congestive heart failure, lower ejection fraction, diagnosis of coronary artery disease), and preoperative history of coronary artery bypass grafting are the factors that determine perioperative cardiac morbidity and mortality rates.
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a disease caused by increased accumulation and impaired clearance of surfactant by alveolar macrophages. This narrative review summarizes the role of therapeutic whole-lung lavage in the management of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. We describe the preprocedural evaluation, indications, and anesthetic considerations, along with step-by step technical aspects of the procedure, postoperative recovery, potential complications, and long-term outcomes.
Treatment of intraoperative hyperglycemia should account for the hyperglycemic surgical stress response trend depending on the stage of surgery as well as the added effects of steroid administration. Denying steroid prophylaxis for postoperative nausea and vomiting for fear of hyperglycemic response should be reconsidered given the limited effect of steroids on intraoperative blood glucose concentrations.
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