Objective To establish the accuracy of three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US), compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), for diagnosing uterine anomalies, using the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology-European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESHRE-ESGE) consensus on the classification of congenital anomalies of the female genital tract.
Our results demonstrate that expectant management might be a reasonable option for managing asymptomatic women who receive a ultrasonographic diagnosis of a benign ovarian teratoma. The risk of undergoing surgery for this lesion decreases significantly after 5 years to follow-up. With careful observation, the risk of missing a diagnosis of malignancy is low.
In the present pictorial we show the ultrasonographic appearances of endometriosis in atypical sites. Scar endometriosis may present as a hypoechoic solid nodule with hyperechoic spots while umbilical endometriosis may appear as solid or partially cystic areas with ill-defined margins. In the case of endometriosis of the rectus muscle, ultrasonography usually demonstrates a heterogeneous hypoechogenic formation with indistinct edges. Inguinal endometriosis is quite variable in its ultrasonographic presentation showing a completely solid mass or a mixed solid and cystic mass. The typical ultrasonographic finding associated with perineal endometriosis is the presence of a solid lesion near to the episiotomy scar. Under ultrasonography, appendiceal endometriosis is characterized by a solid lesion in the wall of the small bowel, usually well defined. Superficial hepatic endometriosis is characterized by a small hypoechoic lesion interrupting the hepatic capsula, usually hyperechoic. Ultrasound endometriosis of the pancreas is characterized by a small hypoechoic lesion while endometriosis of the kidney is characterized by a hyperechoic small nodule. Diaphragmatic endometriosis showed typically small hypoechoic lesions. Only peripheral nerves can be investigated using ultrasound, with a typical solid appearance. In conclusion, ultrasonography seems to have a fundamental role in the majority of endometriosis cases in “atypical” sites, in all the cases where “typical” clinical findings are present.
Off-line assessment of MI and CSI in women with endometrial cancer using 3D-VCI has lower interrater reliability and lower accuracy than 2D-TVU video clip assessment. Since accuracy was correlated to the number of cases assessed annually it is advised to centralize these examinations to high-volume centres.
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