A survey conducted, at the orchards of papaya at different locations in India, revealed that the incidence of leaf curl disease ranged from 13.00-32.00 per cent and 12.00-28.00 per cent during 2006-07 and 2007-08 respectively. Maximum incidence of leaf curl (27.50%), during 2006-07, was recorded in District Etawah. Whereas, maximum leaf curl disease incidence (23.50%), during 2007-08, was recorded in Lucknow district. Symptoms of papaya leaf curl disease appeared in the form of severe distortion of leaves associated with curling and rolling of leaves, leathery leaf, vein zigzag and reduction in the size of petioles, internodes, and main shoot. As for as varietal response was concerned, maximum leaf curl incidence (80.00 and 86.67%) was observed in cultivar Co-4 followed by MF-1 (80.00 and 83.33%). While minimum leaf curl incidence (23.33 and 20.00 percent) was observed on Harichaap cultivar during 2006-07 and 2007-08, respectively. Variety Harichaap was found resistant against leaf curl disease during both the years. Six cultivars (varieties) viz., CO-2, CO-3, CO-6, Coorghoneydew, Pusa Delicious and Pusa Dwarf were rated as moderately resistant.
In the experiments, conducted for the prevention and control/eco-friendly management of the viral diseases of watermelon, through botanical biopesticides, seed treatment followed by 6 foliar sprays with B. diffusa root extract was found most effective against natural infection of viral disease(s) as compared to seed treatment followed by six foliar sprays with A. indica, seed treatment followed by six foliar sprays with C. aculeatum and seed treatment followed by six foliar sprays with T. arjuna. The appearance of disease symptoms was significantly delayed with six foliar sprays along with seed treatment with B. diffusa root extract followed by six foliar sprays along with seed treatment with A. indica, six foliar sprays of B. diffusa, six foliar sprays along with seed treatment with C. aculeatum, six foliar sprays of A. indica, six foliar sprays of C. aculeatum, six foliar sprays along with seed treatment with T. arjuna bark extract. A gradual decrease in disease incidence was recorded along with corresponding increase in number of sprays of the antiviral agents. Minimum disease incidence was recorded in plots, which have seed treatment followed by six foliar sprays of B. diffusa root extract and was significantly lower over rest of the treatments. As the number of sprays increased along with seed treatment, a gradual increase in vine length, number of fruits plant -1 , fruit diameter, fruit weight and fruit yield were recorded in all botanical treatments. Most effective botanical found was B. diffusa root extract which exhibited maximum vine length, number of fruits plant -1 , fruit diameter, fruit weight and fruit yield followed by A. indica leaf extract, C. aculeatum leaf extract and T. arjuna bark extract.
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