A vitória revolucionária de 1959 transformou a estrutura econômica e social, assim como as concepções e o imaginário do povo cubano. Trata-se de uma história que conta já com meio século, na qual a mobilidade e o caráter contraditório das conjunturas, por meio de fatores externos e internos, dão contexto a conquistas e contratempos, e que incidiu de maneira muito complexa na sociedade cubana de hoje. A resistência do projeto cubano contra a hegemonia imperial que caracteriza esse meio século tomou por surpresa os centros de poder mundial quando a sociedade cubana optou por um rumo socialista nos anos 1960; voltou a surpreender com o alcance de suas estratégias de solidariedade, prolongada e decisiva na luta contra o apartheid nas duas décadas seguintes; e finalmente ao se manter em pé após os efeitos da queda mundial do socialismo. E demonstrou, o tempo todo, que resistir é possível e necessário.
La victoria revolucionaria de 1959 transformó la estructura económica y social, así como las concepciones y el imaginario del pueblo cubano. Se trata de una historia que cuenta ya con medio siglo, en la cual la movilidad y el carácter contradictorio de las coyunturas, a través de factores externos e internos, da contexto a logros y a reveses, y ha incidido de manera muy compleja en la sociedad cubana de hoy. La resistencia del proyecto cubano a la hegemonía imperial que caracteriza a este medio siglo tomó por sorpresa a los centros de poder mundial cuando la sociedad cubana optó por un rumbo socialista desde los sesenta; volvió a sorprender con el alcance de sus estrategias de solidaridad, prolongada y decisiva en la lucha contra el apartheid en las dos décadas siguientes; y finalmente al mantenerse en pie tras los efectos del derrumbe socialista mundial. Y demostrar, todo el tiempo, que resistir es posible y es necesario.
The revolutionary victory in 1959 transformed the social and economic structure, as well as the notions and collective imagination of the Cuban people. This episode is already half a century old, during which time the mobile and contradictory nature of the situations, through external and internal factors, gave rise to victories, setbacks and very complex effects in Cuban society today . The resistance of the Cuban project against imperial hegemony over the last fifty-odd years surprised the world's centers of power, when Cuban society chose a socialist path in the 1960s. The scope of its strategies of solidarity was also cause of surprise, with their prolonged and decisive struggle against apartheid over the two following decades. Equally surprising, Cuba remained standing after the worldwide fall of socialism. During this period, the country showed time and again that resistance is possible and necessary
This article attempts to synthesize the results of fairly extensive previous studies and pending assessments in order to present a more detailed look at religion in Cuba, especially in terms of the evolution of secularism. The effort to be brief has required many omissions, both descriptive and analytic. The reader, and only the reader, will judge whether my assessment is sufficiently comprehensive to advance our general understanding of the subject and to stimulate further inquiry. Preliminary considerationsWe must begin by clarifying our theoretical assumptions. First, the term religion encompasses a dual or even multifarious meaning: a spiritual communion via access to the supernatural, faith in the divine, devotion to the transcendent. Viewed on another level it refers to churches, denominations, sects, fellowships or other associative structures that have been adopted. These are not two separate realities, but rather the two dimensions of a single reality: the institutions and the faith of the believers. The interaction between the two gives substance to religion as a component of civil society and culture. I feel obliged to clarify this in order to avoid one of the most common methodological mistakes in addressing the issue of religious faith from a social science perspective.This distinction explains why there is not always a convergence of interests between a given church and its adherents. It also explains why the forces determining the place of religious institutions in the society do not necessarily correspond to those which make the believer a believer. When we disregard this distinction and think only in terms of churches, ignoring faith, our analysis becomes mechanistic.The second assumption I do not want to overlook is the inherent bias determined by whether the analysis comes from the point of view of a believer or a non-believer. This seems to be a truism, but it is not so
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