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We present a numerical model for uniformly rotating superfluid neutron stars, for the first time with realistic microphysics including entrainment, in a fully general relativistic framework. We compute stationary and axisymmetric configurations of neutron stars composed of two fluids, namely superfluid neutrons and charged particles (protons and electrons), rotating with different rates around a common axis. Both fluids are coupled by entrainment, a non-dissipative interaction which in case of a non-vanishing relative velocity between the fluids, causes the fluid momenta being not aligned with the respective fluid velocities. We extend the formalism by Comer and Joynt [1] in order to calculate the equation of state (EoS) and entrainment parameters for an arbitrary relative velocity as far as superfluidity is maintained. The resulting entrainment matrix fulfills all necessary sum rules and in the limit of small relative velocity our results agree with Fermi liquid theory ones, derived to lowest order in the velocity. This formalism is applied to two new nuclear equations of state which are implemented in the numerical model. We are able to obtain precise equilibrium configurations. Resulting density profiles and moments of inertia are discussed employing both EoSs, showing the impact of entrainment and the dependence on the EoS.

In this paper, we study in detail the role of general relativity on the global dynamics of giant pulsar glitches as exemplified by Vela. For this purpose, we carry out numerical simulations of the spin up triggered by the sudden unpinning of superfluid vortices. In particular, we compute the exchange of angular momentum between the core neutron superfluid and the rest of the star within a two-fluid model including both (non-dissipative) entrainment effects and (dissipative) mutual friction forces. Our simulations are based on a quasi-stationary approach using realistic equations of state (EoSs) following Sourie et al. (2016). We show that the evolution of the angular velocities of both fluids can be accurately described by an exponential law. The associated characteristic rise time τ r , which can be precisely computed from stationary configurations only, has a form similar to that obtained in the Newtonian limit. However, general relativity changes the structure of the star and leads to additional couplings between the fluids due to frame-dragging effects. As a consequence, general relativity can have a large impact on the actual value of τ r : the errors incurred by using Newtonian gravity are thus found to be as large as ∼ 40% for the models considered. Values of the rise time are calculated for Vela and compared with current observational limits. Finally, we study the amount of gravitational waves emitted during a glitch. Simple expressions are obtained for the corresponding characteristic amplitudes and frequencies. The detectability of glitches through gravitational wave observatories is briefly discussed.

The role of the symmetry energy and the neutron-matter stiffness on the tidal deformability of a cold nonaccreted neutron star is studied using a set of unified equations of state. Based on the nuclear energy-density functional theory, these equations of state provide a thermodynamically consistent treatment of all regions of the star and were calculated using functionals that were precision fitted to experimental and theoretical nuclear data. Predictions are compared to constraints inferred from the recent detection of the gravitational-wave signal GW170817 from a binary neutron-star merger and from observations of the electromagnetic counterparts.

Timing of the Crab and Vela pulsars have recently revealed very peculiar evolutions of their spin frequency during the early stage of a glitch. We show that these differences can be interpreted from the interactions between neutron superfluid vortices and proton fluxoids in the core of these neutron stars. In particular, pinning of individual vortices to fluxoids is found to have a dramatic impact on the mutual friction between the neutron superfluid and the rest of the star. The number of fluxoids attached to vortices turns out to be a key parameter governing the global dynamics of the star. These results may have implications for the interpretation of other astrophysical phenomena such as pulsar-free precession or the r-mode instability. 2 The amplitude ∆ f over given here corresponds to the magnitude of the exponentially-decaying term plus that of the final frequency jump, respectively denoted by ∆ f d and ∆ f in Ashton et al. (2019).

The hydrodynamic forces acting on a quantized vortex in a superfluid have long been a highly controversial issue. A new approach, originally developed in the astrophysical context of compact stars, is presented to determine these forces by considering small perturbations of the asymptotically uniform flows in the region far from the vortex in the framework of Landau–Khalatnikov two-fluid model. Focusing on the irrotational part of the flows in the Helmholtz decomposition, the classical Kutta–Joukowski theorem from ordinary hydrodynamics is thus generalized to superfluid systems. The same method is applied to predict the hydrodynamic forces acting on vortices in cold atomic condensates and superfluid mixtures.

The superfluid and superconducting core of a cold rotating neutron star is expected to be threaded by a tremendous number of neutron quantised vortices and proton fluxoids. Their interactions are unavoidable and may have important astrophysical implications. In this paper, the various contributions to the force acting on a single vortex to which fluxoids are pinned are clarified. The general expression of the force is derived by applying the variational multifluid formalism developed by Carter and collaborators. Pinning to fluxoids leads to an additional Magnus type force due to proton circulation around the vortex. Pinning in the core of a neutron star may thus have a dramatic impact on the vortex dynamics, and therefore on the magneto-rotational evolution of the star.

The role of the crust on the tidal deformability of a cold nonaccreted neutron star is studied using the recent unified equation of state BSk24. This equation of state, which is based on the nuclear-energy density functional theory, provides a thermodynamically consistent description of all stellar regions. Results obtained with this equation of state are compared to those calculated for a putative neutron star made entirely of homogeneous matter. The presence of the crustal layers is thus found to significantly reduce the Love number k 2 , especially for low-mass stars. However, this reduction mainly arises from the increase in the stellar radius almost independently of the equation of state. This allows for a simple analytic estimate of k 2 for realistic neutron stars using the equation of state of homogeneous matter only.

Our recent Newtonian treatment of the smooth-averaged mutual-friction force acting on the neutron superfluid and locally induced by the pinning of quantized neutron vortices to proton fluxoids in the outer core of superfluid neutron stars is here adapted to the general-relativistic framework. We show how the local nonrelativistic motion of individual vortices can be matched to the global dynamics of the star using the fully 4D covariant Newtonian formalism of Carter & Chamel. We derive all the necessary dynamical equations for carrying out realistic simulations of superfluid rotating neutron stars in full general relativity, as required for the interpretation of pulsar frequency glitches. The role of vortex pinning on the global dynamics appears to be nontrivial.

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