-Context -Upper gastrointestinal bleeding associated to esophageal varices is the most dramatic complication of cirrhosis.It is recommended screening every cirrhotic for esophageal varices with endoscopy. Objectives -To evaluate the capacity of the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio in non-invasively predicting esophageal varices in a population of cirrhotics originated in an independent center from the one in which it was developed. Methods -The study included patients from the ambulatory care clinic of cirrhosis of a Brazilian hospital and studied platelet count, spleen diameter and presence of esophageal varices, as well as Child and MELD scores. It used a cutoff value of 909 for the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio, as previously published. A sample of 139 patients was needed to grant results a 95% confidence level. Results -The study included 164 cirrhotics, 56.7% male, with a mean age of 56.6 ± 11.6 years. In the univariate analysis, platelet count, spleen diameter, presence of ascites, Child and MELD scores and the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio were related to esophageal varices (P<0.05). The platelet count/spleen diameter ratio had sensitivity of 77.5% (95% CI = 0.700-0.850), specificity of 45.5% (95% CI = 0.307-0.602), positive predictive value of 79.5% (95% CI = 0.722-0.868), negative predictive value of 42.6% (95% CI = 0.284-0.567) and accuracy of 68.9% (95% CI = 0.618-0.760). In the multivariate analysis, platelet count was the only variable which related to esophageal varices (P<0.05). Conclusion -Platelet count/ spleen diameter ratio is not adequate to predict esophageal varices in cirrhotics.
OBJETIVO: O objetivo geral do estudo é avaliar a acurácia da ultrassonografia (BI-RADS) no diagnóstico do câncer de mama, e os objetivos específicos, descrever a frequência de apresentação dos diferentes achados ultrassonográficos e a avaliação da concordância entre observadores. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Exames de 110 pacientes encaminhados para biópsia, com diagnóstico prévio de nódulos, foram reanalisados independentemente por dois médicos especialistas utilizando a nomenclatura do BI-RADS. Os achados histológicos foram utilizados como padrão-ouro. A acurácia dos achados foi determinada. As diferenças nos grupos de comparação foram analisadas com teste qui-quadrado para variáveis categóricas e a concordância entre os médicos foi calculada por meio da estatística kappa (κ). RESULTADOS: Cento e dez massas mamárias foram avaliadas pelo ultrassom, sendo que 76 (69%) foram benignas e 34 (30,9%), malignas. Foram observados, entre os radiologistas, sensibilidade variando entre 70,5% e 82,3%, valor preditivo negativo entre 81,1% e 87,5%, valor preditivo positivo entre 42,1% e 45,1%, especificidade entre 56,58% e 55,2% e acurácia entre 60,9% e 63,6%. Na avaliação entre observadores foi obtida concordância global considerada moderada (κ= 0,50). CONCLUSÃO: O BI-RADS 4ª edição é um acurado sistema para auxiliar os médicos na descrição das lesões mamárias e na tomada de condutas.
-Background -Transjugular liver biopsy is an alternative procedure for patients who present contraindications to standard percutaneous procedure. Aim -To compare the rate of histological diagnosis obtained on transjugular liver biopsy with an automated trucut needle and with a modified Ross needle. Patients/Methods -Eighty-five patients with suspicion of chronic liver diseases and presenting contraindications for percutaneous liver biopsy (coagulopathy, massive ascites, morbid obesity, or chronic renal problems) were submitted to 89 transjugular liver biopsies between March 1994 and April 2001 at "Hospital São José, Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misercórdia", Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Thirty-five patients underwent 36 biopsies with an automated trucut needle, and 50 patients underwent 53 biopsies with a modified Ross needle. Results -Histological diagnosis was reached in 32/35 subjects submitted to transjugular liver biopsy with the trucut needle (91%) and in 35/50 (70%) submitted to biopsy with the modified Ross needle. Specimens obtained with the trucut needle were significantly larger and less fragmented than those obtained with the Ross needle. Conclusion -Transjugular liver biopsy with the automated trucut needle allowed a higher rate of histological diagnosis when compared to the modified Ross needle in patients with suspicion of chronic liver diseases.
OBJETIVO: A proposta deste estudo foi avaliar a acurácia da classificação BI-RADS® na mamografia. Os pontos secundários foram descrever a frequência de apresentação dos diferentes achados mamográficos e avaliar a concordância entre observadores. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Os exames de 115 pacientes, encaminhados para core biopsy, foram reavaliados independentemente por dois médicos especialistas, cegados, utilizando a recomendação do BI-RADS. Posteriormente, os exames foram comparados com a histologia. A acurácia da classificação BI-RADS na mamografia foi avaliada. A concordância entre os médicos foi calculada pela estatística kappa (κ) de Cohen e as diferenças nos grupos de comparação foram analisadas com teste qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: Esta pesquisa demonstrou que a acurácia mamográfica oscilou de 75% a 62% na diferenciação entre lesões benignas de malignas com o uso do BI-RADS. Houve importante concordância na descrição das margens dos nódulos (κ= 0,66). Baixa concordância foi identificada na descrição dos contornos (formas) dos nódulos (κ= 0,40) e na descrição das calcificações, tanto em relação à sua distribuição (κ= 0,24) como também em relação à morfologia (κ= 0,36). CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo demonstrou que o método é acurado na diferenciação de lesões benignas de malignas. A concordância foi fraca na análise das calcificações quanto a morfologia e distribuição, no entanto, identificou-se elevação progressiva dos valores preditivos positivos nas subcategorias 4.
Background. Transarterial chemoembolization alone or in association with radiofrequency ablation is an effective bridging strategy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma awaiting for a liver transplant. However, cost of this therapy may limit its utilization. This study was designed to evaluate the outcomes of a protocol involving transarterial embolization, percutaneous ethanol injection, or both methods for bridging hepatocellular carcinomas prior to liver transplantation. Methods. Retrospective review of all consecutive adult patients who underwent a first liver transplant as a treatment to hepatitis C-related hepatocellular carcinoma at our institution between 2002 and 2012. Primary endpoint was patient survival. Secondary endpoint was complete tumor necrosis. Results. Forty patients were analyzed, age 58 ± 7 years. There were 23 males (57.5%). Thirty-six (90%) out of the total 40 patients were within Milan criteria. Complete necrosis was achieved in 19 patients (47.5%). One-, 3-, and 5-year patient survival were, respectively, 87.5%, 75%, and 69.4%. Univariate analysis did not reveal any variable to impact on overall patient survival. Conclusions. Transarterial embolization, ethanol injection, or the association of both methods followed by liver transplantation comprises effective treatment strategy for hepatitis C-related hepatocellular carcinoma. This strategy should be adopted whenever transarterial chemoembolization and/or radiofrequency ablation are not available options.
-Background -Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Imaging techniques, specially computed tomography and ultrasound, are among the most useful diagnostic tools, although the accuracy of these methods may have a significant variability. Aims -To determine the prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation at "Santa Casa de Misericórdia" of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; to estimate the sensitivity of computed tomography and ultrasound in pretransplantation detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in this population; to correlate the radiological characteristics with anatomopathological findings. Materials and Methods -Retrospective prevalence study. Population: adult, cirrhotic patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation from January 1990 to July 2003. Among the 292 transplanted patients, 31 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma were diagnosed, of which 29 were included in the study. Tumor characteristics in both ultrasound and computed tomography were compared to those observed in anatomopathological examination. ResultsPrevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among patients with diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was 93.5%, and the prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma among transplanted patients was 10.6%. The overall sensitivity of the imaging techniques was 70.3% for computed tomography and 72% for ultrasound. Conclusion -The prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma at our institution, as well as the sensitivity of both ultrasound and computed tomography to detect such tumors at pretransplantation screening were similar to those found by other authors, while the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection, the most common etiological agent for liver disease in our patients, is one of the highest ever reported in literature. Factors influencing hepatocellular carcinoma detection rates were: time from examination to liver transplantation; acquisition of computed tomography images during arterial phase; lesion size. Arterial phase proved to be the most useful part of computed tomography examination in this study.
-Context -Videofluoroscopic swallowing study is a dynamic exam and allows the evaluation of the complete swallowing process. However, most published studies have only reported alterations in the oropharynx and pharyngoesophageal transition, leaving the analysis of the esophagus as a secondary goal. Objectives -The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of alterations in the esophageal phase thorough videofluoroscopic swallowing study in patients with dysphagia. Methods -Consecutive patients with dysphagia who underwent videofluoroscopic swallowing study including esophageal analysis between May 2010 and May 2012 had their exams retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified into two groups: Group I -without a pre-established etiological diagnosis and Group II -with neurological disease. During the exam, the patients ingested three different consistencies of food (liquid, pasty and solid) contrasted with barium sulfate and 19 items were analyzed according to a protocol. The esophageal phase was considered abnormal when one of the evaluated items was compromised. Results -Three hundred and thirty-three (n = 333) consecutive patients were studied -213 (64%) in Group I and 120 (36%) in Group II. Esophageal alterations were found in 104 (31%) patients, with a higher prevalence in Group I (36.2%), especially on the items esophageal clearance (16.9%) and tertiary contractions (16.4%). It was observed that 12% of individuals in Group I only presented alterations on the esophageal phase. Conclusion -Evaluation of the esophageal phase of swallowing during videofluoroscopic swallowing study detects abnormalities in patients with cervical dysphagia, especially in the group without pre-established etiological diagnosis.
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