BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Breastfeeding is an evidence-based recommendation for all countries, but breastfeeding rates have been declining in many middle-income settings. One reason behind this decline is the perception that breastfeeding may not be necessary in modern urban settings, where clean water is available and alternative foods are abundant. We investigate the importance of breastfeeding for early childhood development in the modern urban context of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: In our study, we used data from the ongoing prospective Western Region Birth cohort in São Paulo, Brazil. Children were recruited at birth and managed for 3 years. Durations of exclusive and mixed breastfeeding were our primary independent variables. Our secondary independent variable was an indicator for compliance with World Health Organization (WHO) breastfeeding recommendations. Our primary outcomes of interest were indicators of children’s physical, cognitive, language, and social-emotional development at 3 years of age. Adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using linear and logistic regression. RESULTS: Complying with WHO recommendations to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months followed by complementary feeding until 2 years of age was associated with a 0.4-SD increase in overall child development (β: .38; confidence limit = 0.23 to 0.53), a 0.6-SD increase in height-for-age z score (β: .55; confidence limit = 0.31 to 0.79), and a 67% decrease in the odds of stunting (odds ratio = 0.33; 95% confidence interval = 0.20 to 0.54). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that even in settings with easy access to complementary foods, complying with WHO breastfeeding recommendations is important for healthy physical growth and cognitive development.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic supplementation on liver histopathology and TLR-4, NFκB and TNF-α gene expression involved in the inflammatory cascade and pathogenesis of experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Design/methodology/approach Wistar male adult rats (n = 40) were submitted to hypercholesterolemic conditions (60 days). On Day 30 of hypercholesterolemic conditions, rats were subdivided in five groups: negative control (NC), positive control (PC), prebiotic (PRE), probiotic (PRO) and synbiotic (SYN). All rats were sacrificed on Day 60. Liver tissue was used to verify histopathological changes and gene expression. Gene expression of TLR-4, TNF-α and NFκB was evaluated in liver tissue using RT-qPCR. Findings Histopathological analysis: PC showed more changes than NC, and PRE and SYN showed fewer alterations than PC. Gene expression analysis: PRE showed higher TLR-4, and NFκB and TNF-α compared to PC. Also, PRE showed higher TLR-4 when compared to PRO and SYN. SYN group revealed higher TLR-4 and NFκB expressions compared to PC. PRO group also showed higher NFκB expression compared to PC. Originality/value NAFLD is a significant health concern, and it found that prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic supplementation could have positive effects as a nonpharmacological approach to control this disease.
RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a relação entre autocompaixão e adição à comida em mulheres com comportamento alimentar disfuncional. Métodos: Mulheres de um grupo de apoio completaram as escalas de compulsão alimentar, restrição cognitiva, autocompaixão, Escala de Adição à Comida de Yale versão modificada 2.0 (YFAS 2.0) e questionário de Hay para práticas compensatórias. Foram identificados a prevalência de adição à comida e sintomas segundo a YFAS. Para serem incluídas, as participantes deveriam atingir pontuação para compulsão alimentar e, para análises, foram divididas em função da presença de práticas compensatórias. O grupo foi analisado por meio de testes de correlação de Pearson entre variáveis de interesse, e os grupos bulímico e compulsivo foram comparados com teste t de Student (p < 0,05; software JASP). Resultados: Participaram do estudo 190 mulheres. De acordo com a YFAS, 95,3% (n = 181) tinham adição à comida, e os escores da escala apresentaram correlação negativa com a autocompaixão e com a compulsão alimentar (p = 0,014 em ambas). Os níveis de autocompaixão apresentaram correlação negativa com as questões #3, #5, #6, #8 e #9 da YFAS (p < 0,05). Conclusões: Este estudo traz dados para a discussão da necessidade de analisar como a autocrítica atrelada ao sofrimento de quem apresenta comportamento alimentar disfuncional afeta o preenchimento da escala, trazendo identificação com a noção de vício, já que esta é culturalmente aceita.
Background Low birth weight and prematurity remain leading causes of infant mortality and morbidity globally. Although extensive literature has highlighted the importance of socioenvironmental characteristics for birth outcomes, the role of indirect violence on health remains fairly understudied. Methods Using geocoded birth records from the ongoing Western Region Birth Cohort (Região Oeste Coorte – ROC-Cohort) of infants born between 2012 and 2014 and geocoded crime reports, we assessed the associations between exposure to violent crimes during pregnancy within a 1-km radius of the mother’s residence and low birth weight, preterm delivery, and being born small-for-gestational-age. Violent crime exposure was categorized into quintiles. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between violence exposure and birth outcomes. Models were adjusted for sex, maternal age and education, socioeconomic status, and risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and drinking during pregnancy. Results Among the 5268 children included, the average crime exposure during the first two trimesters of pregnancy ranged from 0.44 violent crimes in the least exposed quintile to 12.74 crimes in the most exposed. Compared to children with the lowest violence exposure, children in the highest exposure quintile had higher odds of being born small-for-gestational-age (1.41[1.06–1.89]), preterm (1.35[1.01–1.80]), and low birth weight (1.42[1.03–1.98]). While socioeconomic status and maternal education were positively associated with lower violence exposure, no associations were found between these characteristics and birth outcomes. Conclusions Higher exposure to violent crimes in the close vicinity of pregnant women’s residence is associated with substantial increases in the odds of adverse birth outcomes. Policies to improve neighborhood safety can potentially contribute not only to the short-term wellbeing of populations but may also have large social, economic, and health benefits in the long term.
BackgroundExisting research on the impacts of adversity on young children's psychological well‐being has largely focused on household‐level risk factors using observational methods in high‐income countries. This study leverages natural variation in the timing and location of community homicides to estimate their acute effects on the regulatory, behavioral, and developmental outcomes of Brazilian 3‐year‐olds.MethodsWe compared the outcomes of children who were assessed soon after a recent neighborhood homicide to those of children from the same residential neighborhoods who had not recently experienced community violence. Our sample included 3,241 3‐year‐olds (Mage = 41.05 months; 53% female; 45% caregiver education less than middle school; 26% receiving a public assistance program) from seven neighborhoods in São Paulo, Brazil. Child outcome measures included parent reports of effortful control and behavior problems as well as direct assessments of children's developmental (cognitive, language, and motor) skills. Community homicides were measured using police records.ResultsRecent exposure to community homicides was associated with lower effortful control, higher behavior problems, and lower overall developmental performance for children (d = .05–.20 standard deviations; p = ns – <.001). Effects were consistent across subgroups based on sociodemographic characteristics and environmental supports, but generally largest when community violence exposure was geographically proximal (within 600 m of home) and recent (within 2 weeks prior to assessment).ConclusionsResults highlight the pervasive effects that community violence can have on young children as well as the need to expand support to mitigate these effects and prevent inequities early in life.
Background: Low birth weight and prematurity remain leading causes of infant mortality and morbidity globally. Although an extensive literature has highlighted the importance of socioenvironmental characteristics for birth outcomes, the role of indirect violence on health remains fairly understudied.Methods: Using geocoded birth records from the ongoing Western Region Birth Cohort (Região Oeste Coorte – ROC-Cohort) of infants born between 2012-2014 and geocoded crime reports, we assessed the associations between exposure to violent crimes during pregnancy within a 1-km radius of mother’s residence and low birth weight, preterm delivery, and being born small-for-gestational-age. Violent crime exposure was categorized into quintiles. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between violence exposure and birth outcomes. Models were adjusted for sex, maternal age and education, socioeconomic status, and risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and drinking during pregnancy.Results: Among the 5,268 infants included, the average crime exposure during the first two trimesters of pregnancy ranged from 0.44 violent crimes in the least exposed quintile to 12.74 crimes in the most exposed. Compared to children with the lowest violence exposure, children in the highest exposure quintile were at higher odds of being born small-for-gestational-age (1.41[1.06-1.89]), preterm (1.35[1.01-1.80]), and low birth weight (1.42[1.03-1.98]). While socioeconomic status and maternal education were positively associated with lower violence exposure, no associations were found between these characteristics and the birth outcomes.Conclusions: Higher exposure to external violent crimes in the close vicinity are associated with substantial increases in the odds of adverse birth outcomes. Policies to improve neighborhood safety can contribute not only to the short-term well-being of populations but may also have large social, economic, and health benefits in the long run.
OBJETIVO: Estimar a composição público-privada da assistência em HIV no Brasil e o perfil organizacional da extensa rede de serviços públicos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados dados da Coorte Qualiaids-BR, que reúne dados dos sistemas nacionais de informações clínicas e laboratoriais de pessoas com 15 anos ou mais com primeira dispensação de terapia antirretroviral, entre 2015–2018, e informações dos serviços do SUS de acompanhamento clínico-laboratorial do HIV, produzidas pelo inquérito Qualiaids. O sistema de acompanhamento foi definido pelo número de exames de carga viral solicitados por algum serviço do SUS: acompanhamento no sistema privado – nenhum registro; acompanhamento no SUS – dois ou mais registros; acompanhamento indefinido – um registro. Os serviços do SUS foram caracterizados como ambulatórios, atenção básica e sistema prisional, segundo autoclassificação dos respondentes ao inquérito Qualiaids (72,9%); para os não respondentes (27,1%) a classificação baseou-se nos termos presentes nos nomes dos serviços. RESULTADOS: No período, 238.599 pessoas com 15 anos ou mais iniciaram a terapia antirretroviral no Brasil, das quais, 69% receberam acompanhamento no SUS, 21,7% no sistema privado e 9,3% tiveram o sistema indefinido. Entre os acompanhados no SUS, 93,4% foram atendidos em serviços do tipo ambulatório, 5% em serviços de atenção básica e 1% no sistema prisional. CONCLUSÃO: No Brasil o tratamento antirretroviral é fornecido exclusivamente pelo SUS, que também é responsável pelo acompanhamento clínico-laboratorial da terapia da maior parte das pessoas em serviços ambulatoriais. O estudo só foi possível porque o SUS mantêm registros e informações públicas acerca do acompanhamento em HIV. Não há nenhum dado disponível para o sistema privado.
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