The aim of this paper is to describe a new variant of Janthinobacterium lividum - ROICE173, isolated from Antarctic snow, and to investigate the antimicrobial effect of the crude bacterial extract against 200 multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria of both clinical and environmental origin, displaying various antibiotic resistance patterns. ROICE173 is extremotolerant, grows at high pH (5.5–9.5), in high salinity (3%) and in the presence of different xenobiotic compounds and various antibiotics. The best violacein yield (4.59 ± 0.78 mg·g−1 wet biomass) was obtained at 22 °C, on R2 broth supplemented with 1% glycerol. When the crude extract was tested for antimicrobial activity, a clear bactericidal effect was observed on 79 strains (40%), a bacteriostatic effect on 25 strains (12%) and no effect in the case of 96 strains (48%). A very good inhibitory effect was noticed against numerous MRSA, MSSA, Enterococci, and Enterobacteriaceae isolates. For several environmental E. coli strains, the bactericidal effect was encountered at a violacein concentration below of what was previously reported. A different effect (bacteriostatic vs. bactericidal) was observed in the case of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from raw vs. treated wastewater, suggesting that the wastewater treatment process may influence the susceptibility of MDR bacteria to violacein containing bacterial extracts.
Biofouling occurs without exception in all water systems, with undesirable effects such as biocorrosion and deterioration of water quality. Drinking water associated biofilms represent a potential risk to human health by harbouring pathogenic or toxin-releasing microorganisms. This is the first study investigating the attached microbiota, with potential threat to human health, in a public water system in Romania. The presence and the seasonal variation of viable faecal indicators and opportunistic pathogens were investigated within naturally developed biofilms in a drinking water treatment plant. Bacterial frequencies were correlated with microbial loads in biofilms as well as with physical and chemical characteristics of biofilms and raw water. The biofilms assessed in the current study proved to be extremely active microbial consortia. High bacterial numbers were recovered by cultivation, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, intestinal enterococci and Clostridium perfringens. There were no Legionella spp. detected in any biofilm sample. Emergence of opportunistic pathogens in biofilms was not significantly affected by the surface material, but by the treatment process. Implementation of a water safety plan encompassing measures to prevent microbial contamination and to control biofouling would be appropriate.
Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CPKP) isolated from influent (I) and effluent (E) of two wastewater treatment plants, with (S1) or without (S2) hospital contribution, were investigated. The strains belonged to the Kp1 phylogroup, their highest frequency being observed in S1, followed by S2. The phenotypic and genotypic hypervirulence tests were negative for all the strains tested. At least one carbapenemase gene (CRG), belonging to the blaKPC, blaOXA-48, blaNDM and blaVIM families, was observed in 63% of CPKP, and more than half co-harboured two to four CRGs, in different combinations. Only five CRG variants were observed, regardless of wastewater type: blaKPC-2, blaNDM-1, blaNDM-6, blaVIM-2, and blaOXA-48. Sequence types ST258, ST101 and ST744 were common for both S1 and S2, while ST147, ST525 and ST2502 were found only in S1 and ST418 only in S2. The strains tested were multi-drug resistant (MDR), all being resistant to beta-lactams, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams and fluoroquinolones, followed by various resistance profiles to aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, tigecycline, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. After principal component analysis, the isolates in S1 and S2 groups did not cluster independently, confirming that the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and gene-type profiles were both similar in the K. pneumoniae investigated, regardless of hospital contribution to the wastewater type.
Being frequently exposed to foreign nucleic acids, bacteria and archaea have developed an ingenious adaptive defense system, called CRISPR-Cas. The system is composed of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) array, together with CRISPR (<i>cas</i>)-associated genes. This system consists of a complex machinery that integrates fragments of foreign nucleic acids from viruses and mobile genetic elements (MGEs), into CRISPR arrays. The inserted segments (spacers) are transcribed and then used by cas proteins as guide RNAs for recognition and inactivation of the targets. Different types and families of CRISPR-Cas systems consist of distinct adaptation and effector modules with evolutionary trajectories, partially independent. The origin of the effector modules and the mechanism of spacer integration/deletion is far less clear. A review of the most recent data regarding the structure, ecology, and evolution of CRISPR-Cas systems and their role in the modulation of accessory genomes in prokaryotes is proposed in this article. The CRISPR-Cas system's impact on the physiology and ecology of prokaryotes, modulation of horizontal gene transfer events, is also discussed here. This system gained popularity after it was proposed as a tool for plant and animal embryo editing, in cancer therapy, as antimicrobial against pathogenic bacteria, and even for combating the novel coronavirus – SARS-CoV-2; thus, the newest and promising applications are reviewed as well.
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