Radial neuronal migration is key in structuring the layered cortex. Here we studied the role of MARK2/Par-1 in this process. The dual name stands for the MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 2 (MARK2) and the known polarity kinase 1 (Par-1). Reduced MARK2 levels using in utero electroporation resulted in multipolar neurons stalled at the intermediate zone border. Reintroduction of the wild-type kinase postmitotically improved neuronal migration. Our results indicated that reduction in MARK2 affected centrosomal dynamics in migrating neurons of the cerebral cortex. Increased MARK2 has been shown to destabilize microtubules, and here we show for the first time that reduced MARK2 stabilized microtubules in primary cultured neurons. Kinase-independent activity permitted multipolar-to-bipolar transition but did not restore proper migration. Increased MARK2 levels resulted in a different phenotype, which is loss of neuronal polarity. MARK2 kinase activity reduction hindered migration in the developing brain, which was rescued by increasing kinase activity. Our results stress the necessity of maintaining dynamic microtubules for proper neuronal migration. Furthermore, the exact requirements for MARK2 and its kinase activity vary during the course of neuronal migration. Collectively, our results stress the requirements for the different roles of MARK2 during neuronal migration.
The reward system is a collection of circuits that reinforce behaviors necessary for survival [1, 2]. Given the importance of reproduction for survival, actions that promote successful mating induce pleasurable feeling and are positively reinforced [3, 4]. This principle is conserved in Drosophila, where successful copulation is naturally rewarding to male flies, induces long-term appetitive memories , increases brain levels of neuropeptide F (NPF, the fly homolog of neuropeptide Y), and prevents ethanol, known otherwise as rewarding to flies [6, 7], from being rewarding . It is not clear which of the multiple sensory and motor responses performed during mating induces perception of reward. Sexual interactions with female flies that do not reach copulation are not sufficient to reduce ethanol consumption , suggesting that only successful mating encounters are rewarding. Here, we uncoupled the initial steps of mating from its final steps and tested the ability of ejaculation to mimic the rewarding value of full copulation. We induced ejaculation by activating neurons that express the neuropeptide corazonin (CRZ)  and subsequently measured different aspects of reward. We show that activating Crz-expressing neurons is rewarding to male flies, as they choose to reside in a zone that triggers optogenetic stimulation of Crz neurons and display conditioned preference for an odor paired with the activation. Reminiscent of successful mating, repeated activation of Crz neurons increases npf levels and reduces ethanol consumption. Our results demonstrate that ejaculation stimulated by Crz/Crz-receptor signaling serves as an essential part of the mating reward mechanism in Drosophila. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Abnormal neuronal migration is manifested in brain malformations such as lissencephaly. The impairment in coordinated cell motility likely reflects a faulty mechanism of cell polarization or coupling between polarization and movement. Here we report on the relationship between the polarity kinase MARK2/Par-1 and its substrate, the well-known lissencephaly-associated gene doublecortin (DCX), during cortical radial migration. We have previously shown using in utero electroporation that reduced MARK2 levels resulted in multipolar neurons stalled at the intermediate zone border, similar to the phenotype observed in the case of DCX silencing. However, whereas reduced MARK2 stabilized microtubules, we show here that knock-down of DCX increased microtubule dynamics. This led to the hypothesis that simultaneous reduction may alleviate the phenotype. Coreduction of MARK2 and DCX resulted in a partial restoration of the normal neuronal migration phenotype in vivo. The kinetic behavior of the centrosomes reflected the different molecular mechanisms activated when either protein was reduced. In the case of reducing MARK2 processive motility of the centrosome was hindered, whereas when DCX was reduced, centrosomes moved quickly but bidirectionally. Our results stress the necessity for successful coupling between the polarity pathway and cytoplasmic dynein-dependent activities for proper neuronal migration.
Regulated activity of the retrograde molecular motor, cytoplasmic dynein, is crucial for multiple biological activities, and failure to regulate this activity can result in neuronal migration retardation or neuronal degeneration. The activity of dynein is controlled by the LIS1-Ndel1-Nde1 protein complex that participates in intracellular transport, mitosis, and neuronal migration. These biological processes are subject to tight multilevel modes of regulation. Palmitoylation is a reversible posttranslational lipid modification, which can dynamically regulate protein trafficking. We found that both Ndel1 and Nde1 undergo palmitoylation in vivo and in transfected cells by specific palmitoylation enzymes. Unpalmitoylated Ndel1 interacts better with dynein, whereas the interaction between Nde1 and cytoplasmic dynein is unaffected by palmitoylation. Furthermore, palmitoylated Ndel1 reduced cytoplasmic dynein activity as judged by Golgi distribution, VSVG and short microtubule trafficking, transport of endogenous Ndel1 and LIS1 from neurite tips to the cell body, retrograde trafficking of dynein puncta, and neuronal migration. Our findings indicate, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time that Ndel1 palmitoylation is a new mean for fine-tuning the activity of the retrograde motor cytoplasmic dynein.
Several risk factors for mediolateral episiotomy exist. Episiotomy does not protect nulliparous women, and may be associated with an increased risk for multiparous, for OASI. Therefore, the practice of routine episiotomy should be abandoned, and the practice of selective episiotomy reconsidered.
Endometriosis is associated with higher risk of cesarean delivery and postpartum hemorrhage. Our findings suggest appropriate preparations for delivery, such as uterotonic agents and blood products, should be considered in these women.
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