Background: the development of oral motor control depends partially on motor and sensory experiences. Aim: to analyze the relationship between the duration of breastfeeding, artificial feeding and sucking habits, and of these parameters with the orofacial motor performance. Method: participants of this study were one hundred and seventy-six children aged 6 to 12 years. All subjects were submitted to an orofacial myofunctional clinical examination, using a protocol with scores, and parents/care takers were interviewed in respect to the feeding and sucking habits of their children. Correlations were calculated using the Spearman Test. Results: in the studied sample, the mean duration of breastfeeding was of 10.30 months (ranging from zero to 60 months), of artificial feeding was of 44.12 months (zero to 122 months) and of sucking habits was of 39.32 months (0 to 144 months). There was a negative correlation of breastfeeding duration with artificial feeding duration and sucking habits duration (p < 0001). The duration of the artificial feeding was positively correlated to the duration of sucking habits (p < 0001). The duration of breastfeeding was positively correlated with the mobility of the tongue and jaw (p = 0.05). There was a negative correlation of the duration of artificial feeding and the duration of sucking habits with the performance in mastication and swallowing, respectively, as well as with the duration of both types of sucking with the performance in the diadochokinesia test (p = 0.05). Conclusion: the duration of natural breastfeeding presented a positive effect over the mobility of the orofacial structures. Deleterious effects of the prolonged duration of artificial feeding and sucking habits in the oral motor control were confirmed.
BackgroundCissus sicyoides (Vitaceae) is a medicinal plant popularly known in Brazil as "cipó-pucá, anil-trepador, cortina, and insulina". The plant is used in several diseases, including rheumatism, epilepsy, stroke and also in the treatment of diabetes. In the present work, we studied the hypoglycemic and anti-lipemic effects of the aqueous extract prepared from fresh leaves of the plant (AECS), in the model of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. In addition, hepatic enzyme levels were also determined.ResultsResults showed that the daily treatment of diabetic rats with AECS for 7 days (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly decreased blood glucose levels in 25 and 22% respectively, as compared to the same groups before AECS treatment. No significant changes were seen in control diabetic rats before (48 h after alloxan administration) and after distilled water treatment. While no changes were seen in total cholesterol levels, a significant decrease was observed in plasma triglyceride levels, in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats after AECS treatment with both doses, as compared to the same groups before treatment. Significant decreases in blood glucose (25%) and triglyceride levels (48%) were also observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats after 4 days treatment with AECS (200 mg/kg, p.o.). Aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases levels, in diabetic controls and AECS-treated rats, were in the range of reference values presented by normal rats.ConclusionsThe results justify the popular use of C. sicyoides, pointing out to the potential benefit of the plant aqueous extract (AECS) in alternative medicine, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Background: identification of the mandibular movement range is an important procedure in the evaluation of the stomatognathic system. However, there are few studies in children that focus on normal parameters or abnormalities. Aim: to determine the average range of mandibular movements in Brazilian children aged 6 to 12 years; to verify the difference between genders, in each age group, and between the different age groups: 6-8 years; 8.1-10 years; and 10.1-12 years. Method: participants of the study were 240 healthy children selected among regular students from local schools of São Paulo State. The maximum mandibular opening, lateral excursion and protrusive movements, and deviation of the medium line, if present, were measured using a digital caliper. Student T test, Analysis of variance and Tukey test were considered significant for p < 0.05. Results: the mean values observed in the studied sample were: 44.51mm for maximum mandibular opening; 7.71mm for lateral excursion to the right; 7.92mm for lateral excursion to the left; 7.45mm for protrusive movements. No statistical difference was observed between genders. There was a gradual increase in the range of mandibular movements, with significant differences mainly between the ages of 6-8 years and 10.1-12 years. Conclusion: during childhood the range of mandibular movements increases. Age should be considered in this analysis for a greater precision in the diagnosis.
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