Gaining and sustaining support for novel ventures is a vital yet difficult entrepreneurial process. Previous research on this topic has generally focused on the social competence and social capital of those creating new ventures, and their ability to align their ventures, with collective norms of novel ventures as sensible, acceptable and legitimate. We suggest that sensegiving – the ability to communicate a meaningful course for a venture – to investors and employees may also play a direct role in achieving support for a venture. Based upon a micro-ethnographic study of two individuals who were in the process of creating new ventures, we demonstrate how they give sense, to others in real time that involve not just their speech but also their gestures. Overall, we find evidence that in the early stages of the commercialization of a venture, metaphors in both speech and gesture are consistently used to emphasize agency and control and the predictability and taken-for-grantedness of a novel venture.
The metaphorical components of two cognitive models of
moral/political systems, presented in Lakoff (1996 ), were tested
empirically, using a set of televised debates between two candidates for US
president as data. Few verbal metaphoric expressions were found in the data
which directly reﬂected the conceptual metaphors proposed in the models.
However, a large number of mostly non-metaphoric expressions were found which
constitute entailments of the models. This suggests a form of reasoning
according to the logic of the proposed metaphors. The speakers’ metaphoric
gestures in one of the debates were then coded and analyzed. Quantitative
analysis produced results similar to the linguistic analysis, but qualitative
analysis highlighted signiﬁcant differences between the models, both in terms of
their composition and how they can be expressed. The study raises methodological
issues for metaphor research, and theoretical questions about the ways of
identifying and labeling conceptual metaphors and about the status of cognitive
and cultural models.
Lakoff (1996) analyzes American political positions in terms of two different sets of conceptual metaphors: the right wing ‘Strict Father’ (SF) model and the left wing ‘Nurturant Parent’ (NP) model. The current study is an empirical test of the degree to which these models were manifested in the televised debates between George W. Bush and Al Gore before the 2000 US presidential elections. While the results show little metaphorical language which would directly support the proposed models, many expressions were found which follow from the models as logical entailments. An analysis of both speakers’ metaphoric gestures shows Bush expressing the SF model largely regardless of his use of SF or NP language, and Gore using gesture more for discourse structuring purposes. This study suggests that differences in the nature of the metaphors themselves in the two models help make the SF model easier to present as a coherent framework than the NP model.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.