Organelle movement is essential for proper function of living cells. In plants, these movements generally depend on actin filaments, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, in Arabidopsis, we identify associations of short actin filaments along the chloroplast periphery on the plasma membrane side associated with chloroplast photorelocation and anchoring to the plasma membrane. We have termed these chloroplast-actin filaments (cp-actin filaments). Cp-actin filaments emerge from the chloroplast edge and exhibit rapid turnover. The presence of cp-actin filaments depends on an actin-binding protein, chloroplast unusual positioning1 (CHUP1), localized on the chloroplast envelope. chup1 mutant lacked cp-actin filaments but showed normal cytoplasmic actin filaments. When irradiated with blue light to induce chloroplast movement, cp-actin filaments relocalize to the leading edge of chloroplasts before and during photorelocation and are regulated by 2 phototropins, phot1 and phot2. Our findings suggest that plants evolved a unique actin-based mechanism for organelle movement.actin filament ͉ chloroplast photorelocation ͉ chloroplast unusual positioning1 (CHUP1) ͉ organelle movement ͉ phototropin
Efficient photosynthesis is essential for plant survival. To optimize photosynthesis, plants have developed several photoresponses. Stems bend towards a light source (phototropism), chloroplasts move to a place of appropriate light intensity (chloroplast photorelocation) and stomata open to absorb carbon dioxide. These responses are mediated by the blue-light receptors phototropin 1 (phot1) and phototropin 2 (phot2) in Arabidopsis (refs 1-5). In some ferns, phototropism and chloroplast photorelocation are controlled by red light as well as blue light. However, until now, the photoreceptor mediating these red-light responses has not been identified. The fern Adiantum capillus-veneris has an unconventional photoreceptor, phytochrome 3 (phy3), which is a chimaera of the red/far-red light receptor phytochrome and phototropin. We identify here a function of phy3 for red-light-induced phototropism and for red-light-induced chloroplast photorelocation, by using mutational analysis and complementation. Because phy3 greatly enhances the sensitivity to white light in orienting leaves and chloroplasts, and PHY3 homologues exist among various fern species, this chimaeric photoreceptor may have had a central role in the divergence and proliferation of fern species under low-light canopy conditions.
Organelle movement is essential for efficient cellular function in eukaryotes. Chloroplast photorelocation movement is important for plant survival as well as for efficient photosynthesis. Chloroplast movement generally is actin dependent and mediated by blue light receptor phototropins. In Arabidopsis thaliana, phototropins mediate chloroplast movement by regulating short actin filaments on chloroplasts (cp-actin filaments), and the chloroplast outer envelope protein CHUP1 is necessary for cp-actin filament accumulation. However, other factors involved in cp-actin filament regulation during chloroplast movement remain to be determined. Here, we report that two kinesin-like proteins, KAC1 and KAC2, are essential for chloroplasts to move and anchor to the plasma membrane. A kac1 mutant showed severely impaired chloroplast accumulation and slow avoidance movement. A kac1kac2 double mutant completely lacked chloroplast photorelocation movement and showed detachment of chloroplasts from the plasma membrane. KAC motor domains are similar to those of the kinesin-14 subfamily (such as Ncd and Kar3) but do not have detectable microtubule-binding activity. The C-terminal domain of KAC1 could interact with F-actin in vitro. Instead of regulating microtubules, KAC proteins mediate chloroplast movement via cp-actin filaments. We conclude that plants have evolved a unique mechanism to regulate actin-based organelle movement using kinesin-like proteins.cp-actin | blue light | organelle movement | phototropin
The blue light receptors termed cryptochromes mediate photomorphological responses in seed plants. However, the mechanisms by which cryptochrome signals regulate plant development remain obscure. In this study, cryptochrome functions were analyzed using the moss Physcomitrella patens . This moss has recently become known as the only plant species in which gene replacement occurs at a high frequency by homologous recombination. Two cryptochrome genes were identified in Physcomitrella, and single and double disruptants of these genes were generated. Using these disruptants, it was revealed that cryptochrome signals regulate many steps in moss development, including induction of side branching on protonema and gametophore induction and development. In addition, the disruption of cryptochromes altered auxin responses, including the expression of auxin-inducible genes. Cryptochrome disruptants were more sensitive to external auxin than wild type in a blue light-specific manner, suggesting that cryptochrome light signals repress auxin signals to control plant development. INTRODUCTIONBecause of their sessile nature, various mechanisms have evolved in plants that enable them to adapt their growth and morphology to environmental changes. Light is one of the most important environmental stimuli in this regard. Several sets of photoreceptors have developed to enable plants to respond to light. For instance, Arabidopsis has at least five red/far-red light receptor phytochromes, two blue light receptor cryptochromes, and two of another class of blue light receptors termed phototropins (Briggs and Olney, 2001; Briggs et al., 2001). Phytochrome is the best characterized photoreceptor in plants because of its ability to switch between an active form and an inactive form by absorbing red light or far-red light, respectively. Phytochrome light signals control developmental processes from germination to flowering (Neff et al., 2000;Smith, 2000). A cryptochrome was the first identified blue light receptor in plants ( Ahmad and Cashmore, 1993), and blue light signals via cryptochromes control various responses that accompany developmental changes (Briggs and Huala, 1999;Cashmore et al., 1999;Lin, 2000). In contrast, phototropins control responses that change the direction of growth or organelle movements, such as phototropism (Briggs and Huala, 1999) and the chloroplast avoidance response (Jarillo et al., 2001;Kagawa et al., 2001).Cryptochromes show a high degree of homology in their N-terminal regions with the photoreactivating enzymes termed photolyases. They also possess C-terminal amino acid extensions of various lengths that photolyases lack. The recombinant Arabidopsis CRY1 protein contains two cofactors, flavin adenine dinucleotide and methenyltetrahydrofolate, the same as in photolyases (Lin et al., 1995;Malhotra et al., 1995). In Arabidopsis, two cryptochromes, cry1 and cry2, are involved in many photomorphological processes, such as the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation (Ahmad and Cashmore, 1993;Lin et al., 1998), the...
Life on earth relies upon photosynthesis, which consumes carbon dioxide and generates oxygen and carbohydrates. Photosynthesis is sustained by a dynamic environment within the plant cell involving numerous organelles with cytoplasmic streaming. Physiological studies of chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes show that these organelles actively communicate during photorespiration, a process by which by-products produced by photosynthesis are salvaged. Nevertheless, the mechanisms enabling efficient exchange of metabolites have not been clearly defined. We found that peroxisomes along chloroplasts changed shape from spherical to elliptical and their interaction area increased during photorespiration. We applied a recent femtosecond laser technology to analyse adhesion between the organelles inside palisade mesophyll cells of Arabidopsis leaves and succeeded in estimating their physical interactions under different environmental conditions. This is the first application of this estimation method within living cells. Our findings suggest that photosynthetic-dependent interactions play a critical role in ensuring efficient metabolite flow during photorespiration.
An action spectrum for the low-fluencerate response of chloroplast movement in protonemata of the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris L. was determined using polarized light vibrating perpendicularly to the protonema axis. The spectrum had several peaks in the blue region around 450 nm and one in the red region at 680 nm, the blue peaks being higher than the red one. The red-light action was suppressed by nonpolarized far-red light given simultaneously or alternately, whereas the bluelight action was not. Chloroplast movement was also induced by a local irradiation with a narrow beam of monochromatic light. A beam of blue light at low energy fluence rates (7.3·10(-3)-1.0 W m(-2)) caused movement of the chloroplasts to the beam area (positive response), while one at high fluence rates (10 W m(-2) and higher) caused movement to outside of the beam area (negative response). A red beam caused a positive response at fluence rates up to 100 W m(-2), but a negative response at very high fluence rates (230 and 470 W m(-2)). When a far-red beam was combined with total background irradiation with red light at fluence rates causing a low-fluence-rate response in whole cells, chloroplasts moved out of the beam area. When blue light was used as background irradiation, however, a narrow far-red beam had no effect on chloroplast distribution. These results indicate that the light-oriented movement of Adiantum chloroplasts is caused by red and blue light, mediated by phytochrome and another, unidentified photoreceptor(s), respectively. This movement depends on a local gradient of the far-red-absorbing form of phytochrome or of a photoexcited blue-light photoreceptor, and it includes positive and negative responses for both red and blue light.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.