The chemical composition of Trachyspermum ammi essential oil (EO) was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and thymol (63.4%), p‐cymene (19%) and γ‐terpinene (16.9%) were found as the major components. The antimicrobial properties of the EO were investigated against 10 important foodborne pathogenic bacteria and spoilage fungi by disk diffusion and by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The EO exhibited strong activity against both bacteria and fungi, with greater inhibition of bacterial growth compared with fungi; MIC value of EO against all bacteria was evaluated at 500 ppm, whereas the fungal species were inhibited at concentrations of 1000–2000 ppm. The EO also showed antioxidant activity assessed by 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl, with IC50 (concentration providing 50% inhibition) of 34 μg/mL. Similarly, in β‐carotene/linoleic acid assay, the EO was effectively able to inhibit the linoleic acid oxidation, exhibiting 82.16% inhibition that was similar to butylated hydroxytoluene. Overall, the EO exhibit potent antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, which supports its potential use for perishable and high fatty foods.
This study is the first report of the chemical composition of Iranian Trachyspermum ammi essential oil and its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. In conclusion, the obtained data indicate that the essential oil exhibits potent antibacterial and antifungal activity, which supports its use in traditional medicine for its antiseptic properties. The results clearly show that the oil of T. ammi presents antioxidant activity and might be useful for high fatty foods.
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