OBJECTIVETo assess insulin action on peripheral glucose utilization and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) suppression as a predictor of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with type 1 diabetes and nondiabetic controls.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSInsulin action was measured by a three-stage hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (4, 8, and 40 mU/m2/min) in 87 subjects from the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes cohort (40 diabetic, 47 nondiabetic; mean age 45 ± 8 years; 55% female).RESULTSPeripheral glucose utilization was lower in subjects with type 1 diabetes compared with nondiabetic controls: glucose infusion rate (mg/kg FFM/min) = 6.19 ± 0.72 vs. 12.71 ± 0.66, mean ± SE, P < 0.0001, after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, fasting glucose, and final clamp glucose and insulin. Insulin-induced NEFA suppression was also lower in type 1 diabetic compared with nondiabetic subjects: NEFA levels (μM) during 8 mU/m2/min insulin infusion = 370 ± 27 vs. 185 ± 25, P < 0.0001, after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, fasting glucose, and time point insulin. Lower glucose utilization and higher NEFA levels, correlated with CAC volume (r = −0.42, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.41, P < 0.0001, respectively) and predicted the presence of CAC (odds ratio [OR] = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.22–0.93, P = 0.03; OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.08–5.32, P = 0.032, respectively). Insulin resistance did not correlate with GHb or continuous glucose monitoring parameters.CONCLUSIONSType 1 diabetic patients are insulin resistant compared with nondiabetic subjects, and the degree of resistance is not related to current glycemic control. Insulin resistance predicts the extent of coronary artery calcification and may contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes as well as subjects without diabetes.
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents a heterogeneous group of malignancies consisting essentially of adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Although the diagnosis and treatment of ADC and SCC have been greatly improved in recent decades, there is still an urgent need to identify accurate transcriptome profile associated with the histological subtypes of NSCLC. The present study aims to identify the key dysregulated pathways and genes involved in the development of lung ADC and SCC and to relate them with the clinical traits. The transcriptional changes between tumour and normal lung tissues were investigated by RNA-seq. Gene ontology (GO), canonical pathways analysis with the prediction of upstream regulators, and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to identify co-expressed modules and hub genes were used to explore the biological functions of the identified dysregulated genes. It was indicated that specific gene signatures differed significantly between ADC and SCC related to the distinct pathways. Of identified modules, four and two modules were the most related to clinical features in ADC and SCC, respectively. CTLA4, MZB1, NIP7, and BUB1B in ADC, as well as GNG11 and CCNB2 in SCC, are novel top hub genes in modules associated with tumour size, SUVmax, and recurrence-free survival. Our research provides a more effective understanding of the importance of biological pathways and the relationships between major genes in NSCLC in the perspective of searching for new molecular targets.
Type 1 diabetes is believed to be a Th1 lymphocyte-mediated disease, and both environmental and genetic factors play a role in its pathogenesis. It was recently found that interleukin (IL)-18 acts as a proinflammatory cytokine and, in synergy with IL-12, promotes development of Th1 lymphocyte response by induction of gamma-interferon production. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of known polymorphisms in the IL-18 promoter in patients with type 1 diabetes in comparison with healthy control subjects, since higher levels of IL-18 were recently reported in the subclinical stage of type 1 diabetes. We studied two recently described single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the promoter of IL-18 gene at the position -137 and -607, which have been suggested to cause differences in transcription factor binding and have an impact on IL-18 gene activity. The genotype distribution differed significantly between patients with type 1 diabetes and control subjects. The difference reflected an increase in the GC genotypes and a decrease in GG genotypes at position -137 in the promoter of IL-18 gene. AA genotype at position -607 was found only in the control group. The results also demonstrated that the contribution of -137GC genotypes to genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes differs depending on the combination of IL-18 promotor gene haplotypes. Our study suggests the first evidence of an association between type 1 diabetes and polymorphisms in the promoter of IL-18 gene.
Resistin is a cysteine-rich adipokine originally described as a molecular link between obesity and insulin resistance in rodents. In this study, we hypothesised that serum resistin concentrations are elevated in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) when compared with pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and related to proinflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other factors conferring insulin resistance. Serum resistin and IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 81 women with GDM, 82 women with NGT between 24 and 31 weeks of gestation and 25 healthy non-pregnant women. Resistin concentrations were significantly higher in the GDM (21.9 [17.55-25.40] ng/ml) than in the NGT group (19.03 [15.92-23.91] ng/ml, p = 0.047), as well as in the non-pregnant women (14.8 [13.7-16.6] ng/ml, p < 0.0001). Serum IL-6 levels were elevated in the GDM (1.0 [0.7-1.5] pg/ml) as compared with the NGT group (0.8 [0.5-1.1] pg/ml, p = 0.006) and the non-pregnant controls (0.7 [0.5-1.1] pg/ml, p = 0.04). Multiple regression analysis revealed that in the pregnant women circulating resistin was related to serum IL-6 (beta = 0.33, p = 0.0004) but not to insulin or the index of insulin resistance. It is concluded that the finding of high resistin and IL-6 levels in women with gestational diabetes might confirm a role of low-grade inflammation in the pathogenesis of GDM.
Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and its soluble receptors sTNFR-1 and sTNFR-2 were measured in 80 patients with gestational diabetes (GDM) (mean age 29.0 +/- 4.9 years) and 30 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (mean age 28.2 +/- 6.0 years). We found that GDM patients had significantly lower concentrations of adiponectin (11.28 +/- 5.91 vs. 16.31 +/- 6.04 microg/ml, p = 0.00009) and elevated levels of TNF-alpha (1.71 +/- 0.92 vs. 1.27 +/- 0.42 pg/ml, p = 0.0175) in comparison to NGT women. The differences remained statistically significant after adjusting for BMI. Plasma levels of sTNFR-1 and sTNFR-2 also tended to be higher in GDM patients. In the GDM group TNF-alpha concentrations correlated significantly with sTNFR-1 (r = 0.444, p = 0.00008), sTNFR-2 (r = 0.364, p = 0.0016) and with C-peptide concentrations (r = 0.318, p = 0.016), whereas in women with NGT TNF-alpha correlated only with TG levels (r = 0.50, p = 0.024). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that prepregnant BMI was the most predictive indicator of TNF-alpha concentrations in GDM women. TG concentrations as well as BMI before pregnancy and at the time of sampling in pregnant NGT women were significant predictors, explaining 62% of the variance in TNF-alpha concentration. There were also negative correlations between adiponectin concentrations and a pregestational BMI (r = - 0.298, p = 0.009), BMI at the time of sampling (r = - 0.239, p = 0.034) and TG concentrations (r = - 0.379, p = 0.039) in GDM patients, whereas women with NGT showed only a negative correlation between adiponectin and TG concentrations (r = - 0.488, p = 0.025). In a multivariate regression analysis, prepregnancy BMI and TG levels remained significant predictors, explaining 39% of the variation in plasma adiponectin concentration in GDM women. In conclusion, our results suggest that decreased adiponectin concentration in GDM may not simply reflect maternal adiposity and insulin resistant state, but may contribute to the impaired glucose metabolism during pregnancy, with potential implications for screening and prevention of the disease.
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