Nutrition and lifestyle during pregnancy and preconceptional period represent a major public health challenge, influencing the development of the embryo, fetus, and placenta, with considerable potential to influence not only maternal health but also that of future generations. However, the risk of inadequate maternal nutrition is high both in underdeveloped and in industrialized countries, where inflammation due to maternal obesity, stress and pollution seems to play a major role in mediating maternal, perinatal and long-term adverse outcomes. These dietary inadequacies are due to complex socio-cultural and economic interacting factors and it is to date mandatory to incorporate in clinician's appointment brief nutrition discussions supported by easy questionnaires and to propose simple and personalized multidisciplinary interventions.
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