2021
DOI: 10.3390/nano11071694
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Vitreous Carbon, Geometry and Topology: A Hollistic Approach

Abstract: Glass-like carbon (GLC) is a complex structure with astonishing properties: isotropic sp2 structure, low density and chemical robustness. Despite the expanded efforts to understand the structure, it remains little known. We review the different models and a physical route (pulsed laser deposition) based on a well controlled annealing of the native 2D/3D amorphous films. The many models all have compromises: neither all bad nor entirely satisfactory. Properties are understood in a single framework given by topo… Show more

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Cited by 18 publications
(7 citation statements)
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References 140 publications
(220 reference statements)
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“…amorphous carbon films can be seen as randomly distributed hexagon rings in a matrix of sp 3 -hybridized carbon and that can be transformed to glassy carbon structure by laser irradiation by converting the sp 3 sites to the sp 2 ones and forming curved graphene sheets interlinked between all dispersed hexagonal rings [19,35]. fs-PLD under vacuum produces the same carbon films after laser irradiation, regardless of the sp 2 nature of the target.…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…amorphous carbon films can be seen as randomly distributed hexagon rings in a matrix of sp 3 -hybridized carbon and that can be transformed to glassy carbon structure by laser irradiation by converting the sp 3 sites to the sp 2 ones and forming curved graphene sheets interlinked between all dispersed hexagonal rings [19,35]. fs-PLD under vacuum produces the same carbon films after laser irradiation, regardless of the sp 2 nature of the target.…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Graphitic carbons are typically comprised of planar hexagonal networks of atoms, while non‐graphitic carbons contain curved hexagonal networks of atoms together with non‐hexagonal components. [ 3,38,39 ]…”
Section: Structural Demonstration Of Hard Carbons: From Past To Presentmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Graphitic carbons are typically comprised of planar hexagonal networks of atoms, while non-graphitic carbons contain curved hexagonal networks of atoms together with non-hexagonal components. [3,38,39] Non-graphitic carbons are usually divided into graphitizable carbons (soft carbons) and non-graphitizable carbons (hard carbons) depending on whether they can be readily graphitized at a temperature of ≈3000 °C. [40,41] Both soft carbons and hard car-bons lack a long-range periodic structure, and sp 2 and sp 3 hybridization co-exist in the structure as shown in Figure 2a.…”
Section: Structural Demonstration Of Hard Carbons: From Past To Presentmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…The process of graphitization of hydrocarbon compounds is irreversible, but it is not always terminated with the formation of graphite, both in terms of structure ordering and in terms of removal of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur heterocompounds. Condensation of carbonaceous matter can occur at the stage of formation of graphite-like nanostructures of various degrees of order and sizes [ 6 ] and can also end with the formation of structures such as multilayer ribbons and fullerenes [ 7 , 8 ]. In the sequence of carbonization (dehydrogenation) of hydrocarbon compounds, according to their physicochemical properties, a class of substances of the highest degree of transformation (carbonization) was distinguished, which was characterized by the so-called pre-graphite structural stage [ 9 , 10 , 11 ].…”
Section: Formation Of Disordered Sp 2 C...mentioning
confidence: 99%