2020
DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2019.103278 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: The structure and functioning of microbial communities from fermented foods, including cheese, have been extensively studied during the past decade. However, there is still a lack of information about both the occurrence and the role of viruses in modulating the function of this type of spatially structured and solid ecosystems. Viral metagenomics was recently applied to a wide variety of environmental samples and standardized procedures for recovering virus-like particles from different type of materials has … Show more

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“…The bacterial composition of these starters is often well characterized, but little is known about their phage-bacteria growth dynamics, with phages normally treated as problems, as viral infections can negatively affect or even eliminate the starter culture during production. Only a few studies characterize the bacteriophage community composition in cheese samples using viral metagenomes, mostly using whey or cheese rind samples 32,33 , and a recent metaanalysis using 184 cheese microbial metagenomes identified a high abundance of phageassociated sequences 34 . Here, we report the first study of phage-bacteria dynamics present in an artisanal cheese produced using the backslopping method, as well as its endogenous starter culture, from seven distinct artisanal Canastra Cheese producers in Minas Gerais Gerais state, in Brazil.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…Only few studies used such direct approaches to characterize the phage communities of fermented foods. Dugat-Bony et al, used interferometric light microscopy to determine the phage concentration on the surface of three cheese varieties and found that it ranged from 1×10 9 to 4×10 10 particles per gram at least [35]*. They also observed different morphotypes on Epoisses cheese with TEM, giving first indications about the complexity of phage communities present on the cheese surface.…”
Section: Direct Detection Approachesmentioning
“…Recently, the first metavirome of the cheese surface was described [35] using Epoisses cheese as an example. The viral fraction was obtained according to an optimized protocol involving filtration, PEG concentration and chloroform treatment.…”
Section: New Contributions Of Whole Metagenome Sequencing and Viral Metagenomicsmentioning
“…Phages infecting S. thermophilus are currently differentiated into five groups termed the cos (or Moineauvirus) and pac (or Brussowvirus) [8], 5093 [9], 987 [10] and P738 [11] groups. Limited studies on the biodiversity of S. thermophilus phages have been undertaken [12][13][14], though phageome studies of cheese and cheese-associated (by)products have recently garnered increasing attention [15,16]. To elucidate the phage-host interactome, it is essential to understand the biodiversity of both phages and their hosts that are applied in an industrial context, and of the phage-and host-encoded components that contribute to these interactions.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…To elucidate the phage-host interactome, it is essential to understand the biodiversity of both phages and their hosts that are applied in an industrial context, and of the phage-and host-encoded components that contribute to these interactions. Recently, protocols have been optimized for the extraction and analysis of phageomes relating to cheese and cheese wheys [15,16]. Phageome analysis of fermented foods and their by-products provides useful insights into the prevalence, diversity and abundance of phages present in these foods, particularly where undefined starter culture mixtures are applied.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning