2015
DOI: 10.1186/s12864-015-1828-2
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Venom-gland transcriptome and venom proteome of the Malaysian king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah)

Abstract: BackgroundThe king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is widely distributed throughout many parts of Asia. This study aims to investigate the complexity of Malaysian Ophiophagus hannah (MOh) venom for a better understanding of king cobra venom variation and its envenoming pathophysiology. The venom gland transcriptome was investigated using the Illumina HiSeq™ platform, while the venom proteome was profiled by 1D-SDS-PAGE-nano-ESI-LCMS/MS.ResultsTranscriptomic results reveal high redundancy of toxin transcripts (3357.… Show more

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Cited by 106 publications
(111 citation statements)
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References 76 publications
(182 reference statements)
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“…The Indonesian B. fasciatus , interestingly, has a much lower venom LD 50 (0.45 μg/g) than the Thai species. The phenomenon indicates intra-specific venom variation which could be due to geographical factor, as demonstrated previously for the Malaysian and Indonesian king cobras30. Remarkable geographical venom variations had also been reported within the species of several Asiatic cobras31323334, and the biological significance and medical ramification of these variations cannot be overlooked.…”
Section: Discussionsupporting
confidence: 69%
“…The Indonesian B. fasciatus , interestingly, has a much lower venom LD 50 (0.45 μg/g) than the Thai species. The phenomenon indicates intra-specific venom variation which could be due to geographical factor, as demonstrated previously for the Malaysian and Indonesian king cobras30. Remarkable geographical venom variations had also been reported within the species of several Asiatic cobras31323334, and the biological significance and medical ramification of these variations cannot be overlooked.…”
Section: Discussionsupporting
confidence: 69%
“…Hemachatus + Naja venoms have a high concentration of the cytotoxic 3FTx unique to this clade [36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45]. Similarly O. hannah venoms have the highest concentration of L-amino acid oxidase of any snake venom and also the most derived forms of venom L-amino acid oxidase [23,46,47,48,49,50,51]. Taken together these results are strongly indicative of a co-evolutionary relationship between hooding behaviour and cytotoxic venom.…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The abundance of individual venom toxin was estimated based on its mean spectral intensity (MSI) relative to the total MSI of all proteins identified through the in-solution mass spectrometry, as reported previously [19,20]. The subtypes and relative abundances of toxins were derived from triplicates (tryptic digestion) to minimize experimental bias.…”
Section: Estimation Of Relative Protein Abundance Of Toxinsmentioning
confidence: 99%