2016
DOI: 10.1080/15569543.2016.1220397
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Toxin synergism in snake venoms

Abstract: Synergism between venom toxins exists for a range of snake species. Synergism can be derived from both intermolecular interactions and supramolecular interactions between venom components and can be the result of toxins targeting the same protein, biochemical pathway, or physiological process. Few simple systematic tools and methods for determining the presence of synergism exist, but include co-administration of venom components and assessment of Accumulated Toxicity Scores. A better understanding of how to i… Show more

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Cited by 47 publications
(37 citation statements)
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References 58 publications
(43 reference statements)
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“…Interestingly, PPARγ activation results in cellular protection from NMDA toxicity. Given the known inhibitory effect of argiotoxins on NMDA receptors [Moe et al, 1998], this is striking and biologically plausible evidence for toxin synergism, where two or more venom components target multiple cellular structures with related functions in order to incite a more powerful response [Laustsen, 2016].…”
Section: Argiope Lobata Venom Versus Cardiopulmonary and Psychiatric mentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…Interestingly, PPARγ activation results in cellular protection from NMDA toxicity. Given the known inhibitory effect of argiotoxins on NMDA receptors [Moe et al, 1998], this is striking and biologically plausible evidence for toxin synergism, where two or more venom components target multiple cellular structures with related functions in order to incite a more powerful response [Laustsen, 2016].…”
Section: Argiope Lobata Venom Versus Cardiopulmonary and Psychiatric mentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Even though most existing venom-derived drugs consist of a single component, crude venoms in nature use the synergistic effects of multiple components to cause specific phenotypic effects [Laustsen, 2016]. Therefore, testing each venom component individually using the where n is the number of components in the venom).…”
Section: Transitioning From Venoms To Venom Componentsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…As put by Laustsen, snake venom is likely to be the "most complex pharmaceutical target" known, composed of a multitude of toxin components and complex biochemical interactions [42]. Thus, SMT targets for inhibition should be, ideally, abundant across as many of the medically important snake species as possible.…”
Section: Venom Target Selectionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Continued research into the proteomic and toxicovenomic characterization of the most medically relevant venoms are crucial in order to have a more comprehensive understanding of drug and antivenom targeting in these species, as well as to understand the nature of therapeutic failures when they occur. The use of tools, such as the newly developed Toxicity Score, which combines the medical importance and the relative abundance of a specific toxin, can aid the identification of a target [41,42].…”
Section: Venom Target Selectionmentioning
confidence: 99%
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