2021
DOI: 10.1007/s13665-021-00272-4
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Abstract: Purpose of Review Subcutaneous emphysema is often observed by clinicians in the context of pneumothorax. It is usually clinically insignificant, but in a few cases can progress to threaten the patient’s vision or airway. A variety of approaches to management of such cases are described in the literature. There no controlled trials and no guidelines on management, other than that the cause should be identified and treated wherever possible. The goal of this article is to review the described appro… Show more

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Cited by 7 publications
(8 citation statements)
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References 39 publications
(45 reference statements)
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“…Subcutaneous emphysema has been documented at rates of between 63.6% and 90.5% in other COVID-19 PTM series with more than 10 patients [ 13 , 16 17 ]. This result is in keeping with high reported rates of subcutaneous emphysema in spontaneous non-COVID PTM of up to 100% [ 1 ] and in excess of lower rates of co-occurrence between subcutaneous emphysema and non-COVID-19 pneumothorax of up to 20% [ 25 ]. It would suggest that subcutaneous emphysema is a feature strongly associated with PTM and not specifically to COVID-19 PTM.…”
Section: Discussionsupporting
confidence: 84%
“…Subcutaneous emphysema has been documented at rates of between 63.6% and 90.5% in other COVID-19 PTM series with more than 10 patients [ 13 , 16 17 ]. This result is in keeping with high reported rates of subcutaneous emphysema in spontaneous non-COVID PTM of up to 100% [ 1 ] and in excess of lower rates of co-occurrence between subcutaneous emphysema and non-COVID-19 pneumothorax of up to 20% [ 25 ]. It would suggest that subcutaneous emphysema is a feature strongly associated with PTM and not specifically to COVID-19 PTM.…”
Section: Discussionsupporting
confidence: 84%
“…In general, there is no guidelines on the management of subcutaneous emphysema exist. There are a variety of case-based recommendations in the literature, but no controlled trial has been conducted to date [5]. Various approaches used to manage subcutaneous emphysema include subcutaneous incisions, needles, drains and cervical mediastinotomy [2] and the superiority of each technique is debatable.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Most subcutaneous emphysema is self-limiting and resolves spontaneously without intervention. However, massive or extensive subcutaneous emphysema that extending beyond the trunk into the neck and head should be managed to prevent the complications such as tension phenomenon leading to dysphagia, dysphonia, palpebral closure, compartment syndrome, and intracranial hypertension [5]. It can also be complicated by restriction of full lung expansion and can lead to high airway pressure causing airway compromise, ventilator failure, severe respiratory acidosis, ventilator failure and pacemaker malfunction [2,6].…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Rare cases of extensive subcutaneous emphysema have been documented and most commonly occur following pneumothorax, penetrating trauma and rib fractures, barotrauma, or an iatrogenic insult [5,6,8]. More severe cases of this phenomenon are more often secondary to iatrogenicity, whereas mild cases are associated with pneumothoraces [1].…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%