2021
DOI: 10.3389/frvir.2021.699383
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The Effects of Virtual Reality on Procedural Pain and Anxiety in Pediatrics: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Abstract: Distraction and procedural preparation techniques are frequently used to manage pain and anxiety in children undergoing medical procedures. An increasing number of studies have indicated that Virtual Reality (VR) can be used to deliver these interventions, but treatment effects vary greatly. The present study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that have used VR to reduce procedural pain and anxiety in children. It is the first meta-analytic assessment of the potential influence of technical sp… Show more

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Cited by 22 publications
(23 citation statements)
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“…The rising applicability of iVR in medicine is consecutive to exponential technological growth and availability, and it is predicted to become as ubiquitous as smartphones are today [ 23 ]. Immersive virtual reality (iVR) interventions are reported to lower patients’ fear concerning a variety of medical procedures such as dental, magnetic resonance claustrophobia, or needle puncture [ 24 ], as well as decreasing acute procedural pain [ 25 ] and anxiety of both children and adults [ 26 , 27 , 28 ]. Nowadays, iVR equipment is a more affordable technological breakthrough, reflecting current consumer HMDs higher specifications and lower prices.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The rising applicability of iVR in medicine is consecutive to exponential technological growth and availability, and it is predicted to become as ubiquitous as smartphones are today [ 23 ]. Immersive virtual reality (iVR) interventions are reported to lower patients’ fear concerning a variety of medical procedures such as dental, magnetic resonance claustrophobia, or needle puncture [ 24 ], as well as decreasing acute procedural pain [ 25 ] and anxiety of both children and adults [ 26 , 27 , 28 ]. Nowadays, iVR equipment is a more affordable technological breakthrough, reflecting current consumer HMDs higher specifications and lower prices.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The available evidence for supporting the use of VR in managing distress in children undergoing painful procedures is still scarce [18,19] and the results from some studies report inconsistent effects on distress and anxiety in children during invasive procedures [20]. Although VR has been shown sometimes effective in the management of distress and anxiety in children, the available studies on this subject largely differ for their design, intervention, and outcome measures [21,22].…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…When applied during an acutely stressful situation, VR has already been shown to lead to immediate and significant lowering of stress levels, marked by changes in heart rate variability and cortisol levels, as well as significant improvements in subjective measures of anxiety and affect (Liszio et al, 2018). The strongly absorbing nature of immersive VR environments that are designed to act as an immediate anxiety relief (Valtchanov, 2010;Yu et al, 2020), offer a competing stimulus (Wiederhold et al, 2014;Nordgård and Låg, 2021) and may act as a sobering tool during an overchallenging or otherwise psychologically detrimental psychedelic experience. Even when not utilized, the knowledge that VR is available as an immediate rescue tool may act as a safety net for the participant, aiding the sense of relaxation, trust and surrender into the experience.…”
Section: Rescuementioning
confidence: 99%