2006
DOI: 10.1001/archderm.142.3.371
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Sex Hormones and the Genesis of Autoimmunity

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Cited by 99 publications
(157 citation statements)
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“…7,8 A consistent clinical observation is that women develop autoimmune diseases much more frequently than men. 7,9,10 Furthermore, epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that a history of autoimmune diseases is a significant risk for the subsequent development of lymphoma and multiple myeloma. [11][12][13] The sexually distinct patterns of autoimmune diseases have been, at least in part, attributed to sex hormones, particularly estrogens.…”
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confidence: 90%
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“…7,8 A consistent clinical observation is that women develop autoimmune diseases much more frequently than men. 7,9,10 Furthermore, epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that a history of autoimmune diseases is a significant risk for the subsequent development of lymphoma and multiple myeloma. [11][12][13] The sexually distinct patterns of autoimmune diseases have been, at least in part, attributed to sex hormones, particularly estrogens.…”
mentioning
confidence: 90%
“…Estrogens are important immunomodulators, exerting significant effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis, cytokine production and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. [5][6][7] Estrogen receptors (both alpha and beta) are expressed on normal B and T lymphocytes, bone marrow, and in leukemia and lymphoma cell lines. 7,8 A consistent clinical observation is that women develop autoimmune diseases much more frequently than men.…”
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confidence: 99%
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“…Adult rats were immunized at the base of the tail with 75 mg of the peptide MBP [68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82][83][84][85][86] (YGSLPQKSQR-SQDENPV) 27 (synthesized at the Weizmann Institute of Science), emulsified in an equal volume of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA; DIFCO LABORA-TORIES, Detroit, MI, USA) containing 5 mg ml…”
Section: Vaccinationmentioning
confidence: 99%