2012
DOI: 10.1590/s1678-91992012000200002
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Scorpionism in Central America, with special reference to the case of Panama

Abstract: Scorpionism in the Americas occurs mainly in Mexico, northern South America and southeast Brazil. This article reviews the local scorpion fauna, available health statistics, and the literature to assess scorpionism in Central America. Notwithstanding its high toxicity in Mexico, most scorpion sting cases in Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are produced by species in the genus Centruroides that are only mildly toxic to humans despite the existence of ion channel-active toxins in their v… Show more

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Cited by 32 publications
(19 citation statements)
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References 40 publications
(36 reference statements)
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“…On the other hand, C. limbatus is the most common species in the Caribbean, and C. bicolor the most common in the South Pacific (Víquez, 1999). Scorpions of the genus Tityus showed arboreal habits and can be found in unaltered to less altered forests (Borges et al, 2012); this made its observation and capture difficult, resulting in less encounters.…”
Section: General Procedures and Preliminary Findingsmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…On the other hand, C. limbatus is the most common species in the Caribbean, and C. bicolor the most common in the South Pacific (Víquez, 1999). Scorpions of the genus Tityus showed arboreal habits and can be found in unaltered to less altered forests (Borges et al, 2012); this made its observation and capture difficult, resulting in less encounters.…”
Section: General Procedures and Preliminary Findingsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Approximately 2 000 species of scorpions can be found around the world, and are classified in 15 families (Fet & Soleglad, 2005;Rein, 2013). Very few of these animals are considered "dangerous" for human beings, and the main scorpionism cases have been reported for regions such as: Australia (Isbister, Volschenk, & Seymour, 2004), Asia (Dehghani, Vazirianzadeh, Nasrabadi, & Moravvej, 2010), Africa (Laïd et al, 2012), and America: especially Latin America (Borges, Miranda, & Pascale, 2012). An approximate number of 30 species of scorpions are potentially harmful for human beings, where 19 species belong to the family Buthidae, and the genus Centruroides and Tityus, found in America (Chippaux & Goyffon, 2008).…”
mentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…Genera Centruroides (n ¼ 11), Tityus (n ¼ 8), and Diplocentrus (n ¼ 7) contain 70 % of de described Central American species (Armas and Maes 1998;Borges et al 2012; Fig. Koch).…”
Section: Central Americamentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Koch, both belonging to the family Buthidae, are responsible for systemic scorpionism in the Pacific versant of Mexico, southeastern Brazil, the Amazonia, and northern South America . from Panama and Trinidad/ Tobago were proven lethal to humans (Borges 2013;Borges et al 2012). 1), but scarcity of data has hampered the toxicological/ clinical evaluation of local dangerous species and scorpionism ).…”
Section: Scorpionism and Dangerous Scorpions Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%