2011
DOI: 10.18632/aging.100296
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Roles of the Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR pathways in controlling growth and sensitivity to therapy-implications for cancer and aging

Abstract: Dysregulated signaling through the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR pathways is often the result of genetic alterations in critical components in these pathways or upstream activators. Unrestricted cellular proliferation and decreased sensitivity to apoptotic-inducing agents are typically associated with activation of these pro-survival pathways. This review discusses the functions these pathways have in normal and neoplastic tissue growth and how they contribute to resistance to apoptotic stimuli. Cross… Show more

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Cited by 522 publications
(484 citation statements)
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“…Numerous signaling pathways regulate cell growth and proliferation (28). Various molecules are associated with tumor development.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Numerous signaling pathways regulate cell growth and proliferation (28). Various molecules are associated with tumor development.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Here we show that fragment N2 potently inhibits FGF1-induced phosphorylation of ERK2 and Akt. Because both Akt and ERK2 participate in cell survival signaling (69), one possibility to explain the capacity of fragment N2 to sensitize tumor cells to anti-cancer treatment is a shutdown of pro-survival pathways. There is, however, no evidence for such mechanisms in mammalian cells.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Apart from implications in neurodevelopmental disorders, both pathways are extensively described in tumorigenesis 17 and many of the above mentioned syndromes are associated with a higher risk for the development of benign and/or malignant tumors.…”
Section: Ptpn11 Variant and Mcap Syndrome D Döcker Et Almentioning
confidence: 99%