Background and purpose: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is an increasing burden worldwide. The biopsychosocial factors associated with CLBP have not yet been investigated in Burundi. The aim of this study was to investigate the biopsychosocial factors that influence the CLBP-related outcomes of self-reported pain intensity, limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs), and social participation (SP) restrictions in a Burundian sample population.Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study of 58 adults with non-specific CLBP from Bujumbura city. Measures of pain intensity, ADL limitations, SP restrictions, and biopsychosocial factors were analyzed with descriptive, inferential, and correlational statistics.Results: The biopsychosocial factors found to be associated with CLBP outcomes were body mass index (BMI), education level, gender, healthcare coverage, depression, trunk muscles endurance, and perceived exertion. Self-reported pain intensity was found to be significantly associated with a sub-university education level, depressiveness, high perceived exertion, low spine extensor muscles endurance, and low abdominal muscles endurance (p range, <0.001 to <0.05). Greater disability, in terms of ADL limitations and SP restrictions, was associated with sub-university education level, female gender, lack of healthcare coverage, high BMI, depressiveness, low spine extensor muscles endurance, and low abdominal muscles endurance, and high perceived exertion (p range, <0.001 to <0.05). Conclusions: This study provides evidence of biopsychosocial factor associations with CLBP-related pain, ADL limitations, and SP restrictions in Burundi. Significantly associated factors were consistent with factors that have been associated with CLBP outcomes in high-income countries, with the addition of lack of healthcare coverage as a significant factor in Burundi. Evidence-based management of CLBP in Burundi should incorporate a biopsychosocial model.