2018
DOI: 10.3390/ijms19041197
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Abstract: Therapeutic approaches to metabolic syndrome (MetS) are numerous and may target lipoproteins, blood pressure or anthropometric indices. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are involved in the metabolic regulation of lipid and lipoprotein levels, i.e., triglycerides (TGs), blood glucose, and abdominal adiposity. PPARs may be classified into the α, β/δ and γ subtypes. The PPAR-α agonists, mainly fibrates (including newer molecules such as pemafibrate) and omega-3 fatty acids, are powerful TG-lowe… Show more

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Cited by 131 publications
(153 citation statements)
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References 142 publications
(153 reference statements)
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“…Synthetic ligands for PPARα are fibrates used in treating hypertriglyceridemia (the effectiveness of the use of fibrates is rather low for other PPAR isoforms); PPARβ/δ synthetic ligands are GW501516, GW0742, and L-165041; PPARγ synthetic ligands are thiazolidinediones widely used for the treatment of diabetes and having pronounced antiinflammatory properties [33,37,38,46,89,145]. There is evidence of the effectiveness of using thiazolidinediones as ligands for other PPAR isoforms [90,146].…”
Section: Syntheticmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Synthetic ligands for PPARα are fibrates used in treating hypertriglyceridemia (the effectiveness of the use of fibrates is rather low for other PPAR isoforms); PPARβ/δ synthetic ligands are GW501516, GW0742, and L-165041; PPARγ synthetic ligands are thiazolidinediones widely used for the treatment of diabetes and having pronounced antiinflammatory properties [33,37,38,46,89,145]. There is evidence of the effectiveness of using thiazolidinediones as ligands for other PPAR isoforms [90,146].…”
Section: Syntheticmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The interest for the use of PPAR-α agonists (mainly fibrates [38]) in anti-NASH treatment arose already two decades ago, when gemfibrozil was tested in patients suffering from NASH. Gemfibrozil reduced aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels, as well as VLDL triglyceride production.…”
Section: Ppar-α Agonistsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…considerably effective in treating and managing metabolic syndrome, some of the approved drugs have been retracted from the market or their usage has been curtailed because of harmful side effects (94). Recently, some reviews have already discussed the exhaustive list of agonists and their clinical trial status for each PPAR isotype (95)(96)(97)(98). Therefore, in this review, we will only briefly highlight a few of the promising new drugs that are still undergoing intensive evaluation in human clinical trials.…”
Section: Pparsmentioning
confidence: 99%