DOI: 10.1109/itec-ap.2014.6941202
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Abstract: This paper presents an optimal control-based energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). This strategy not only seeks to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining the state-of-charge of the battery within reasonable bounds, but also seeks to minimize wear of the battery and extend its life. This multi-objective optimal control problem is solved numerically using Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP).