2001
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2001.tb00159.x
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Nocturnal Pollination by the Carpenter Bee Xylocopa tenuiscapa (Apidae) and the Effect of Floral Display on Fruit Set of Heterophragma quadriloculare (Bignoniaceae) in India1

Abstract: We provide the first data on nocturnal pollination by bees. Heterophragma quadriloculare is a self–incompatible hermaphroditic tree solely pollinated at night by the carpenter bee Xylocopa (Mesotrichia) tenuiscapa Westwood, whose pollinating flights were lunar insensitive and unaffected by low nighttime temperatures (2–l4°C). The number of carpenter bees visiting a tree per minute and the number of flowers visited per foraging bout were positively related to the size of the floral display. We found that floral… Show more

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Cited by 45 publications
(26 citation statements)
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References 28 publications
(28 reference statements)
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“…A positive correlation between flower display and activity of crepuscular pollinators, ensuring pollen receipt and donation, was observed by S o m a n a t h a m and B o r g e s [25]. The increase in capsule and seed production in the populations of Dianthus superbus L. along the successional gradient is in accordance with the observations carried out in the populations of other species inhabiting abandoned Molinietum caeruleae.…”
Section: Discussionsupporting
confidence: 78%
“…A positive correlation between flower display and activity of crepuscular pollinators, ensuring pollen receipt and donation, was observed by S o m a n a t h a m and B o r g e s [25]. The increase in capsule and seed production in the populations of Dianthus superbus L. along the successional gradient is in accordance with the observations carried out in the populations of other species inhabiting abandoned Molinietum caeruleae.…”
Section: Discussionsupporting
confidence: 78%
“…A recent review on nocturnal pollination, reports that nocturnal pollinators are often adapted to fly at low temperatures and in dark conditions (Borges et al, 2016). On the other hand, one of the few studies that related flower visitation of a nocturnal bee species to moon light intensity and temperature, found no relationship (Somanathan & Borges, 2001). Thus, we currently lack a general understanding of which abiotic factors drive the abundance and diversity of nocturnal flower visitors.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…On the other hand, they can present specialized behaviours such as buzz pollination on flowers with poricidal anthers (Buchmann 1983;Oliveira-Rebouças and Gimenes 2004) and nectar collection on flowers that present flag morphology or a long tubular corolla (Gottsberger et al 1988;Somanathan and Borges 2001). On these flowers, Xylocopa species may also act as nectar thieves, retrieving the nectar by perforating the flower (Barrows 1980;Maloof and Inouye 2000;Richardson 2004).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 96%