1952
DOI: 10.1001/archderm.1952.01530290003001
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Modes of Spread of Cancer of Skin

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Cited by 168 publications
(132 citation statements)
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“…This space has minimal resistance for extension to occur and may serve as a potential pathway for skin carcinomas of the head and neck region to enter the subarachnoid space of the cranial cavity. 1 Perineural invasion usually occurs in an antegrade (centripetal) fashion, because tumor is more likely to enter the nerve sheath at 1 of the smaller peripheral nerve branches. In some patients, retrograde (centrifugal) extension has been observed and may result when perineural tumor encounters a ganglion and reverses direction along another peripheral branch of the ganglion.…”
Section: Methodsmentioning
confidence: 99%
See 1 more Smart Citation
“…This space has minimal resistance for extension to occur and may serve as a potential pathway for skin carcinomas of the head and neck region to enter the subarachnoid space of the cranial cavity. 1 Perineural invasion usually occurs in an antegrade (centripetal) fashion, because tumor is more likely to enter the nerve sheath at 1 of the smaller peripheral nerve branches. In some patients, retrograde (centrifugal) extension has been observed and may result when perineural tumor encounters a ganglion and reverses direction along another peripheral branch of the ganglion.…”
Section: Methodsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…[2][3][4][5] Typically, squa-mous cell carcinoma (SCC) has a higher incidence of PNI than basal cell carcinoma, with reported rates ranging from 2.5% to 14% in SCC 6,7 compared with 1% in basal cell carcinomas. 1,8 The presence of PNI in patients with SCC often is associated with aggressive clinical behavior, an increased risk of recurrence and metastasis, and a poorer prognosis. 5,[9][10][11] Risk factors for PNI in SCC include male sex, tumor size >2 cm, midfacial tumor location, recurrent tumor, less well differentiated histologic subtypes, and significant subclinical extension.…”
Section: Methodsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Clinical signs do not reliably predict the presence on extent of pemineumal spread [6,7,25,26]. Because ofthis, and because of the possible role of penneumal tumor spread in treatment failure, all patients with malignant lesions of the masticator space or ptemygopalatine fossa should undergo complete cranial nerve V imaging.…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…1 One investigator has proposed that the necessary and sufficient condition for PNI is the presence of unequivocal tumor cells inside the perineurium. 1 Possible contributors to PNI include nutritional factors associated with a nerve's vascular supply 2 and, at least for basal cell carcinoma (BCC), previous radiotherapy (RT). mammary carcinoma growing along the facial nerve.…”
Section: Conclusion Previous Reportsmentioning
confidence: 99%