2020
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0232888
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Abstract: Increasing evidence demonstrates that in many places language coexistence has become ubiquitous and essential for supporting language and cultural diversity and associated with its financial and economic benefits. The competitive evolution among multiple languages determines the evolution outcome, either coexistence, or decline, or extinction. Here, we extend the Abrams-Strogatz model of language competition to multiple languages and then validate it by analyzing the behavioral transitions of language usage ov… Show more

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Cited by 5 publications
(4 citation statements)
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“…[ 99 ] Cr concentrations are reported in PM near industrial sites. [ 50 ] However, the factor identification is purely based on the metal content obtained at the location limiting the ability to apportion secondary sources such as nitrate, sulfate, and secondary organics. It is likely that secondary sources are mixed with primary ones leading to the reduction in overall PMF performance.…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…[ 99 ] Cr concentrations are reported in PM near industrial sites. [ 50 ] However, the factor identification is purely based on the metal content obtained at the location limiting the ability to apportion secondary sources such as nitrate, sulfate, and secondary organics. It is likely that secondary sources are mixed with primary ones leading to the reduction in overall PMF performance.…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…[ 97,98 ] Iron and steel production, according to the WHO, is a substantial source to air pollution in emerging countries because a constant supply of steel is required for industrialization. [ 50 ] Potential source of Pb is also from industrial operations. [ 99 ] Cr concentrations are reported in PM near industrial sites.…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…35 assume a diffusion process to take into account spatial effects. Fujie et al 13 and Zhou et al 36 consider the problem of competition among more than two languages.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%