2016
DOI: 10.1186/s40734-016-0047-6
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Medical treatment of dystonia

Abstract: Therapeutic strategies in dystonia have evolved considerably in the past few decades. Three major treatment modalities include oral medications, botulinum toxin injections and surgical therapies, particularly deep brain stimulation. Although there has been a tremendous interest in the later two modalities, there are relatively few recent reviews of oral treatment. We review the medical treatment of dystonia, focusing on three major neurotransmitter systems: cholinergic, GABAergic and dopaminergic. We also prov… Show more

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Cited by 59 publications
(50 citation statements)
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References 185 publications
(182 reference statements)
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“…Clonazwww.e-arm.org epam, a benzodiazepines, binds to GABA A receptors, facilitating inhibitory neurotransmission. However, the role of gabapentin, a GABA agonist, in pathophysiology of dystonia still remains unclear [7]. From the perspective of rehabilitation medicine, significant improvements in depression and dysphagia were noted after the patient received medication.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…Clonazwww.e-arm.org epam, a benzodiazepines, binds to GABA A receptors, facilitating inhibitory neurotransmission. However, the role of gabapentin, a GABA agonist, in pathophysiology of dystonia still remains unclear [7]. From the perspective of rehabilitation medicine, significant improvements in depression and dysphagia were noted after the patient received medication.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Pharmacotherapy was tested for the management of dystonia. Administration of basic treatment drugs for dystonia [7], Trihexin 2 mg (trihexyphenidyl HCl; Tai Guk Pharm Co. Ltd., Seoul, Korea), Rivotril 0.5 mg (clonazepam; Roche Inc., Basel, Switzerland), and Neurontin 100 mg (gabapentin; Pfizer Inc., NY, USA) were started three times a day. One week after drug administration, mTDS showed significant improvement from 9 to 4 points.…”
Section: Treatmentmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…In movement disorder practice, the therapeutic approach to dystonia and chorea is different. Most commonly employed oral pharmacological therapies in dystonia include anticholinergics, especially trihexyphenidyl, baclofen, and clonazepam . In contrast, medical treatment of chorea includes presynaptic dopamine depletors, especially vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitors such as tetrabenazine, and postsynaptic dopamine receptor blockers (or neuroleptics).…”
mentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Importantly, contradictory results of levodopa efficacy in dyskinetic CP were generally derived after exclusion of alternative diagnoses including dopa‐responsive dystonia (DRD). In clinical practice, levodopa trials still have a crucial role diagnostic confirmation, since DRD is a ‘don't‐miss’ treatable disorder with expanding phenotypic spectrum …”
mentioning
confidence: 99%
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