ConsultantPuerto Vallerta, Mexico THE INTRINSIC OPERATING VOLTAGE limit of bipolar ICs is somewhat greater than the emitter-base voltage of the transistors. To date, this limit has been pushed only with digital circuitry. Techniques for constructing such devices as operational amplifiers, comparators, regulators and voltage references that will work from voltages as low as those supplied by a single nickelcadmium cell, will be offered. comes evident early in the design of low-voltage, micropower circuits wher…
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